Loading…

Protocol - Sleep Apnea - Adult

Add to Toolkit

Protocol Name from Source:

Berlin Questionnaire

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The questionnaire asks about risk factors for sleep apnea, namely snoring behavior, wake time, sleepiness or fatigue, and the presence of high blood pressure. The protocol begins with information that an individual self-reports on height, weight, age, and sex. The 10 questions address snoring, fatigue, and high blood pressure. An algorithm is provided to classify study participants into high or low risk on the basis of their response.

Protocol:

Height (m) ________ Weight (kg)________ Age______ Male / Female

Please choose the correct response to each question.

CATEGORY 1

1. Do you snore?

[ ] a. Yes

[ ] b. No

[ ] c. Don’t know

If you snore:

2. Your snoring is:

[ ] a. Slightly louder than breathing

[ ] b. As loud as talking

[ ] c. Louder than talking

[ ] d. Very loud can be heard in adjacent rooms

3. How often do you snore?

[ ] a. Nearly every day

[ ] b. 3-4 times a week

[ ] c. 1-2 times a week

[ ] d. 1-2 times a month

[ ] e. Never or nearly never

4. Has your snoring ever bothered other people?

[ ] a. Yes

[ ] b. No

[ ] c. Don’t know

5. Has anyone noticed that you quit breathing during your sleep?

[ ] a. Nearly every day

[ ] b. 3-4 times a week

[ ] c. 1-2 times a week

[ ] d. 1-2 times a month

[ ] e. Never or nearly never

CATEGORY 2

6. How often do you feel tired or fatigued after your sleep?

[ ] a. Nearly every day

[ ] b. 3-4 times a week

[ ] c. 1-2 times a week

[ ] d. 1-2 times a month

[ ] e. Never or nearly never

7. During your waking time, do you feel tired, fatigued, or not up to par?

[ ] a. Nearly every day

[ ] b. 3-4 times a week

[ ] c. 1-2 times a week

[ ] d. 1-2 times a month

[ ] e. Never or nearly never

8. Have you ever nodded off or fallen asleep while driving a vehicle?

[ ] a. Yes

[ ] b. No

If yes:

9. How often does this occur?

[ ] a. Nearly every day

[ ] b. 3-4 times a week

[ ] c. 1-2 times a week

[ ] d. 1-2 times a month

[ ] e. Never or nearly never

CATEGORY 3

10. Do you have high blood pressure?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Don’t know

Scoring Berlin Questionnaire

The questionnaire consists of 3 categories related to the risk of having sleep apnea. Patients can be classified into high risk or low risk based on their responses to the individual items and their overall scores in the symptom categories.

Categories and scoring:

Category 1: items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Item 1: if ’Yes’, assign 1 point

Item 2: if ’c’ or ’d’ is the response, assign 1 point

Item 3: if ’a’ or ’b’ is the response, assign 1 point

Item 4: if ’a’ is the response, assign 1 point

Item 5: if ’a’ or ’b’ is the response, assign 2 points

Add points. Category 1 is positive if the total score is 2 or more points.

Category 2: items 6, 7, 8 (item 9 should be noted separately)

Item 6: if ’a’ or ’b’ is the response, assign 1 point

Item 7: if ’a’ or ’b’ is the response, assign 1 point

Item 8: if ’a’ is the response, assign 1 point

Add points. Category 2 is positive if the total score is 2 or more points.

Category 3 is positive if the answer to item 10 is ’Yes’ OR if the BMI of the patient is greater than 30kg/m2.

(BMI must be calculated. BMI is defined as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared, i.e., kg/m2).

High risk: if there are 2 or more categories where the score is positive

Low risk: if there is only 1 or no categories where the score is positive

Additional question: item 9 is not scored and should be noted separately.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 28, 2017

Definition

This measure identifies people with sleep apnea.

Purpose

Sleep apnea is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition that is far more common than is generally understood. Sleep apnea occurs in all age groups and both genders.

Selection Rationale

This protocol is a widely used short set of questions with an algorithm that uses a scoring mechanism to determine risk for sleep apnea.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Person Sleep Apnea Text2970224CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)Resp sleep apnea adult proto62636-6LOINC

Process and Review

[link[phenx.org/node/118|Expert Review Panel #6]] (ERP 6) reviewed the measures in the Respiratory domain.

Guidance from the ERP 6 includes the following:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive ([link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.archive.protocols&id=90000|link]])

Source

Netzer, N. C., Stoohs, R. A., Netzer, C. M., Clark, K., & Strohl, K. P. (1999). Using the Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 131, 485-491.

General References

Chiu, H.-Y., Chen, P. Y., Chuang, L. P., Chen, N. H., Tu, Y. K., Hsieh, Y. J., Wang, Y. C., & Guilleminault, C. (2016). Diagnostic accuracy of the Berlin questionnaire, STOP-BANG, STOP, and Epworth sleepiness scale in detecting obstructive sleep apnea: A bivariate meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2016.10.004

Protocol ID:

91501

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_HeightPX091501010100Height.4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_WeightPX091501010200Weight.4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_AgePX091501010300Age.4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_GenderPX091501010400Gender.4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_SnorePX091501020000CATEGORY 1 Do you snore?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Snore_LoudnessPX091501030000CATEGORY 1 Your snoring is:4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Snore_FrequencyPX091501040000CATEGORY 1 How often do you snore?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Snore_Bother_OtherPX091501050000CATEGORY 1 Has your snoring ever bothered other people?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Quit_Breathing_SleepPX091501060000CATEGORY 1 Has anyone noticed that you quit breathing during your sleep?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Tired_Fatigued_AfterPX091501070000CATEGORY 2 How often do you feel tired or fatigued after your sleep?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Tired_Fatigued_WakingPX091501080000CATEGORY 2 During your waking time, do you feel tired, fatigued, or not up to par?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Nodded_Asleep_DrivingPX091501090000CATEGORY 2 Have you ever nodded off or fallen asleep while driving a vehicle?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_Asleep_Driving_FrequencyPX091501100000CATEGORY 2 How often does this occur?4N/A
PX091501_Sleep_Apnea_High_Blood_PressurePX091501110000CATEGORY 3 Do you have high blood pressure?4N/A