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Protocol - Withdrawal from Tobacco Use

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Minnesota Withdrawal Scale - Revised offers a self-report protocol which reviews symptoms of withdrawal. This protocol has been validated for use with adults and adolescents.

Protocol:

Behavior Rating Scale - Self-Report

Please rate yourself for the period for the last _______________

1. Angry, irritable, frustrated

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

2. Anxious, nervous

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

3. Depressed mood, sad

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

4. Desire or craving to smoke

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

5. Difficulty concentrating

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

6. Increased appetite, hungry, weight gain

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

7. Insomnia, sleep problems, awakening at night

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

8. Restless

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

9. Impatient

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

10. Constipation

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

11. Dizziness

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

12. Coughing

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

13. Dreaming or nightmares

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

14. Nausea

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

15. Sore throat

[] 0 none

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

Behavior Rating Scale - Observer-Rating

Rate the subject on the following symptoms according to whether you observed the symptom in the subject in the last ________________. It does not matter whether the subject complained of the symptom. We want to know whether you noticed the symptom.

a. Angry/irritable/frustrated

[] 0 not at all

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

b. Anxious/tense

[] 0 not at all

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

c. Depressed

[] 0 not at all

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

d. Restless/Impatient

[] 0 not at all

[] 1 slight

[] 2 mild

[] 3 moderate

[] 4 severe

1. How confident are you that this rating is accurate?

[] 0 not at all

[] 1 somewhat confident

[] 2 moderately confident

[] 3 very confident

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult

Specific Instructions:

Instructions for Use of the Minnesota Withdrawal Scale - Revised

1. There are two scales: a self-report and an observer scale. Several items do not appear in the observer scale because observers cannot reliably rate them.

2. On the self-report scale, the first nine items are the well-validated items and are the ones to be used if calculating a total withdrawal discomfort score. The other six are promising candidate items.

3. See the attached table to further compare the content of the scales with the criteria for DSM-V and ICD-10 nicotine/tobacco withdrawal and the contents of other withdrawal scales.

4. We have participants complete the scale both before and after quitting.

5. We have participants rate over the last 24 hours and observers rate over the last week. We usually require observers to see the participant on average 2 hours/day.

6. We use the 0-4 response option so that we can have verbal anchors for each response. Larger response options (e.g., 0-100) are likely more sensitive but may be more difficult to interpret.

7. The scale is not labeled a withdrawal scale because subjects (1) are confused by filling out a "withdrawal" scale prior to cessation, and (2) will sometimes not report a symptom during abstinence if they do not believe it is the result of withdrawal.

8. We encourage readers to read recent reviews of methodological issues in measuring tobacco withdrawal (see references 3 & 4).

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

Withdrawal is measured by the feelings and reactions experienced because of the absence of tobacco.

Purpose

The Minnesota Withdrawal Scale -- Revised records the feelings and reactions experienced because of the absence of tobacco.

Selection Rationale

The Minnesota Withdrawal Scale is a widely used validated instrument which measures withdrawal symptoms.

Language

Arabic, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Tobacco Use Minnesota Withdrawal Scale Assessment Scale4719216CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

www.uvm.edu/~hbpl/?Page=minnesota/default.html

Hughes, J. R., & Hatsukami, D. K. (1986). Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 289-294.

Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale - Revised. The University of Vermont, 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2014.

General References

The website for the scales is http://www.uvm.edu/~hbpl. The scales were originally reported in 1986 (Reference 2). Five articles have described the psychometrics of the scale (References 3-7). Three articles have comprehensively reviewed what is known about tobacco withdrawal (References 1, 4, 8).

Hughes, J. R. (2007). The effects of abstinence from tobacco: Valid symptoms and time course. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 315-327.

Hughes, J. R., & Hatsukami, D. K. (1986). Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 289-294.

Shiffman, S., West, R. J., & Gilbert, D. G. (2004). Recommendation for the assessment of tobacco craving and withdrawal in smoking cessation trials. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 599-614.

Hughes, J. R. (2007). Measurement of the effects of abstinence from tobacco. A qualitative review. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21, 127-137.

West, R., Ussher, M., Evans, M., Rashid, M. (2006). Assessing DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal symptoms: A comparison and evaluation of five different scales. Psychopharmacology, 184, 619-627.

Etter, J. F., & Hughes, J. R. (2006). A comparison of the psychometric properties of three cigarette withdrawal scales. Addiction, 101, 362-372.

Javitz, H., Lerman, C., & Swan, G. (2012). Comparative dynamics of four smoking withdrawal symptom scales. Addiction, epub ahead of print.

Hughes, J. R. (2007). The effects of abstinence from tobacco: Etiology, determinants, epidemiology, significance. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 329-339.

World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Etter, J. (2005). Self-administered questionnaire to measure cigarette withdrawal symptoms: The Cigarette Withdrawal Scale. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 7, 47-57.

West, R., & Hajek, P. (2004). Evaluation of the mood and physical symptoms scale (MPSS) to assess cigarette withdrawal. Psychopharmacology, 177, 195-199.

McNair, D. M., Lorr, J., & Droppelman, L. F. (1992). Profile of mood states manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

Shiffman, S., & Jarvik, M. E. (1976). Smoking withdrawal symptoms in two weeks of abstinence. Psychopharmacologia, 50, 35-39.

Schneider, N. G., & Jarvik, M. E. (1984). Time course of smoking withdrawal symptoms as a function of nicotine replacement. Psychopharmacology, 82, 143-144.

Welsch, S. K., Smith, S. S., Wetter, D. W., Jorenby, D. E., Fiore, M. C., & Baker, T. B. (1999). Development and validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7(4), 354-361.

Shiffman, S., Paty, J. A., Gnys, M., Kassel, J. A., & Hickcox, M. (1996). First lapses to smoking: Within-subjects analysis of real-time reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 366-379.

Hughes, J. R., Helzer, J. E., & Lindberg, S. A. (2006). Prevalence of DSM/ICD-defined nicotine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 85, 91-102.

Protocol ID:

721001

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_AngryPX721001010000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Angry, irritable, frustrated4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_AnxiousPX721001020000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Anxious, nervous4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_DepressedPX721001030000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Depressed mood, sad4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Craving_SmokePX721001040000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Desire or craving to smoke4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Difficulty_ConcentratingPX721001050000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Difficulty concentrating4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_AppetitePX721001060000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Increased appetite, hungry, weight gain4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_InsomniaPX721001070000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Insomnia, sleep problems, awakening at night4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_RestlessPX721001080000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Restless4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_ImpatientPX721001090000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Impatient4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_ConstipationPX721001100000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Constipation4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_DizzinessPX721001110000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Dizziness4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_CoughingPX721001120000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Coughing4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Dreaming_NightmaresPX721001130000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Dreaming or nightmares4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_NauseaPX721001140000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Nausea4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Sore_ThroatPX721001150000Please rate yourself for the period for the last - Sore throat4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Observed_AngryPX721001160000Rate the subject on the following symptoms according to whether you observed the symptom in the subject in the last - Angry/irritable/frustrated4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Observed_AnxiousPX721001170000Rate the subject on the following symptoms according to whether you observed the symptom in the subject in the last -Anxious/tense4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Observed_DepressedPX721001180000Rate the subject on the following symptoms according to whether you observed the symptom in the subject in the last -Depressed4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Observed_RestlessPX721001190000Rate the subject on the following symptoms according to whether you observed the symptom in the subject in the last -Restless/Impatient4N/A
PX721001_Tobacco_Use_Withdrawal_Confident_Rating_AccuratePX721001200000How confident are you that this rating is accurate?4N/A