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Protocol - Behavior Economics/Purchase Behavior

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a simulation procedure to assess reinforcement efficacy of cigarettes within a specific context. The CPT came from an adaptation of a progressive-ratio operant schedule and early studies were a bit literal in the use of doubling response requirements, up to prices that were not plausible in the current market. Subsequent studies have involved using different prices to find the right balance of precision and comprehensiveness.

Protocol:

Read to participant:

CPT - State assessment: Imagine that you could smoke RIGHT NOW. The following questions ask how many cigarettes you would consume if they cost various amounts of money. Assume the available cigarettes are your favorite brand. Assume that you have the same income/savings that you have now and NO ACCESS to any cigarettes or other nicotine products. In addition, assume that you cannot save or stockpile cigarettes for a later date.

Be sure to consider each price increment carefully.

1. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

FREE?

[$0/pack]

2. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

1¢ each?

[20¢/pack]

3. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

5¢ each?

[$1/pack]

4. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

13¢ each?

[$2.60/pack]

5. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

25¢ each?

[$5.00/pack]

6. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

50¢ each?

[$10/pack]

7. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$1 each?

[$20/pack]

8. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$2 each?

[$40/pack]

9. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$3 each?

[$60/pack]

10. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$4 each?

[$80/pack]

11. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$5 each?

[$100/pack]

12. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$6 each?

[$120/pack]

13. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$11 each?

[$220/pack]

14. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$35 each?

[$700/pack]

15. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$70 each?

[$1,400/pack]

16. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$140 each?

[$2,800/pack]

17. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$280 each?

[$5,600/pack]

18. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$560 each?

[$11,200/pack]

19. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$1,120?

[$22,400/pack]

CPT - Trait assessment: Think about a TYPICAL DAY. The following questions ask how many cigarettes you would consume if they cost various amounts of money. Assume the available cigarettes are your favorite brand. Assume that you have the same income/savings that you have now and NO ACCESS to any cigarettes or nicotine products other than those offered at these prices. In addition, assume that you would consume cigarettes that you request at this time. You cannot save or stockpile cigarettes for a later date. Be sure to consider each price increment carefully.

1. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

FREE?

[$0/pack]

2. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

1¢ each?

[20¢/pack]

3. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

5¢ each?

[$1/pack]

4. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

13¢ each?

[$2.60/pack]

5. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

25¢ each?

[$5/pack]

6. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

50¢ each?

[$10/pack]

7. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$1 each?

[$20/pack]

8. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$2 each?

[$40/pack]

9. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$3 each?

[$60/pack]

10. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$4 each?

[$80/pack]

11. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$5 each?

[$100/pack]

12. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$6 each?

[$120/pack]

13. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$11 each?

[$220/pack]

14. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$35 each?

[$700/pack]

15. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$70 each?

[$1,400/pack]

16. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$140each?

[$2,800/pack]

17. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$280each?

[$5,600/pack]

18. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$560each?

[$11,200/pack]

19. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$1,120each

[$22,400/pack]

For adolescents, alternate prices can be considered: Estimated cigarette consumption was assessed at $0.00, $0.01, $0.05, $0.13, $0.25, $0.50, $1.00, $1.50, $2.00, $2.50, $3.00, $4.00, $5.00, $6.00, $7.00, $8.00, $9.00, $11.00, $35.00, $70.00, $140.00, $280.00, $560.00, and $1,120.00 per cigarette.

"The CPT data can generate five demand indices:

1. breakpoint (first price at which cigarette consumption is zero;

2. demand intensity (cigarette consumption at the lowest price);

3. Omax (output maximum, or maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes);

4. Pmax (price maximum, or price at which expenditure is maximized); and

5. elasticity of demand (sensitivity of cigarette consumption to increases in cost). To generate an estimate of elasticity, demand curves were estimated by fitting each participant’s reported consumption across the range of prices to Hursh and Silberberg’s (2008) exponential demand curve equation: ln Q: = lnQ0 + k(eαP −1), in which Q is the quantity consumed, k specifies the range of the dependent variable (cigarette consumption) in logarithmic units, and α specifies the rate of change in consumption with changes in price (elasticity). The value of k (3.5 in natural log units in the present study, based on the best fit with the sample mean consumption values) is constant across all curve fits. Individual differences in elasticity are thereby scaled with a single parameter (α) which is standardized and independent of reinforcer magnitude. Larger α values reflect greater price sensitivity (elasticity). Demand curves were fit according to the Hursh and Silberberg (2008) guidelines using the calculator provided on the Institute for Behavioral Resources website. This nonlinear regression was used to generate an R2 value, reflecting percentage of variance accounted for by the equation. Consistent with Jacobs and Bickel (1999), when fitting the demand curve data, the first zero consumption value (i.e., breakpoint) was replaced by an arbitrarily low but nonzero value of .001, which is necessary for the logarithmic transformations. We did not include subsequent 0 consumption values in our curve estimates." Taken from Murphy et al. (2011).

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Specific Instructions:

Current smoking status must be ascertained before implementing this protocol. Proceed only if subject is a current smoker.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

This assessment establishes the value of a product and related purchase behaviors, including the point at which the cost (i.e. in money, time) exceeds the user’s willingness to pay to use the cigarettes or other nicotine products; the rewarding value of the product.

Purpose

To assess the relative reward value or reinforcing efficacy of a tobacco product to a user through a purchase task.

Selection Rationale

The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a time- and cost-efficient assessment of cigarette value. It has good reliability and test-retest stability. It is related to dependence and cigarettes per day and has been validated with adolescents. Behavioral economics and purchase behavior are primary outcomes of tobacco regulatory research and can be used to assess the abuse liability of tobacco products.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Tobacco Use Behavior Economics Assessment Text4719154CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Few, L. R., Acker, J., Murphy, C., & MacKillop, J. (2012). Temporal stability of a cigarette purchase task. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14, 761-765.

Hursh, S. R., & Silberberg, A. (2008). Economic demand and essential value. Psychological Review, 115, 186-198.

Murphy, J. G., MacKillop, J., Tidey, J. W., Brazil, L. A., & Colby, S. M. (2011). Validity of a demand curve measure of nicotine reinforcement with adolescent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 113, 207-214.

General References

Chase, H. W., MacKillop, J., & Hogarth, L. (2013). Isolating behavioral economic indices of demand in relation to nicotine dependence. Psychopharmacology, 226, 371-380.

Jacobs, E. A., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Modeling drug consumption in the clinic using simulation procedures: Demand for heroin and cigarettes in opioid-dependent outpatients. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 7, 412-426. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.7.4.412.

Liao, W., Luo, X., Le, C. T., Chu, H., Epstein, L. H., Yu, J., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Thomas, S. L. (2013). Analysis of cigarette purchase task instrument data with a left-censored mixed effects model. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21, 124-132.

MacKillop, J., Brown, C. L., Stojek, M. K, Murphy, C. M., Sweet, L, & Niaura, R. (2012). Behavioral economic analysis of withdrawal- and cue-elicited craving for tobacco: An initial investigation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12, 1426-1434.

Protocol ID:

710401

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_0PX710401010000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were FREE? [$0/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1centPX710401020000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 1¿¿ each? [20¿¿/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_5centsPX710401030000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 5¿¿ each? [$1pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_13centsPX710401040000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 13¿¿ each? [$2.60/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_25centsPX710401050000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 25¿¿ each? [$5.00/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_50centsPX710401060000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 50¿¿ each? [$10/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1DollarPX710401070000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $1 each? [$20/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_2DollarPX710401080000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $2 each? [$40/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_3DollarPX710401090000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $3 each? [$60/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_4DollarPX710401100000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $4 each? [$80/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_5DollarPX710401110000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $5 each? [$100/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_6DollarPX71040112000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $6 each? [$120/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_11DollarPX710401130000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $11 each? [$220/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_35DollarPX710401140000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_70DollarPX710401150000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $70 each? [$1,400/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_140DollarPX710401160000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $140 each? [$2,800/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_280DollarPX710401170000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $280 each? [$5,600/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_560DollarPX710401180000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $560 each? [$11,200/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1120DollarPX710401190000How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $1,120? [$22,400/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_0PX710401200000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were FREE? [$0/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1centPX710401210000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 1¿¿ each? [20¿¿/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_5centsPX710401220000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 5¿¿ each? [$1pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_13centsPX710401230000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 13¿¿ each? [$2.60/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_25centsPX710401240000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 25¿¿ each? [$5.00/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_50centsPX710401250000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 50¿¿ each? [$10/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1DollarPX710401260000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $1 each? [$20/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_2DollarPX710401270000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $2 each? [$40/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_3DollarPX710401280000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $3 each? [$60/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_4DollarPX710401290000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $4 each? [$80/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_5DollarPX710401300000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $5 each? [$100/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_6DollarPX710401310000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $6 each? [$120/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_11DollarPX710401320000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $11 each? [$220/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_35DollarPX710401330000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_70DollarPX710401340000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $70 each? [$1,400/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_140DollarPX710401350000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $140 each? [$2,800/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_280DollarPX710401360000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $280 each? [$5,600/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_560DollarPX710401370000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $560 each? [$11,200/pack]4N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1120DollarPX710401380000How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $1,120? [$22,400/pack]4N/A