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Protocol - Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a 40-item self-report inventory to assess the levels of positive and negative perfectionism. Respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire using a 5-point response format, indicating for each item either "strongly agree" (scored 5), "agree" (scored 4), "don’t know" (scored 3), "disagree" (scored 2), or "strongly disagree" (scored 1). Scores for positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism, each with 20 questions, can range from 20 to 100, with higher values indicating greater positive and negative perfectionism, respectively.

Protocol:

Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

Please choose the appropriate statement and corresponding number under the column which applies best to each of the following statements. Please answer each statement.

All replies are strictly confidential.

"5" Strongly Agree

"4" Agree

"3" Don’t Know

"2" Disagree

"1" Strongly Disagree

1. When I start something I feel anxious that I might fail.

2. My family and friends are proud of me when I do really well.

3. I take pride in being meticulous when doing things.

4. I set impossibly high standards for myself.

5. I try to avoid the disapproval of others at all costs.

6. I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding performance.

7. When I am doing something I cannot relax until it’s perfect.

8. It feels as though my best is never good enough for other people.

9. Producing a perfect performance is a reward in its own right.

10. The problem of success is that I must work even harder.

11. If I make a mistake I feel that the whole thing is ruined.

12. I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am working towards a higher standard all the time.

13. I know the kind of person I ought or want to be, but feel I always fall short of this.

14. Other people respect me for my achievements.

15. As a child however well I did, it never seemed good enough to please my parents.

16. I think everyone loves a winner.

17. Other people expect nothing less than perfection of me.

18. When I’m competing against others, I’m motivated by wanting to be the best.

19. I feel good when pushing out the limits.

20. When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied.

21. My high standards are admired by others.

22. If I fail people, I fear they will cease to respect or care for me.

23. I like to please other people by being successful.

24. I gain great approval from others by the quality of my accomplishments.

25. My successes spur me on to greater achievements.

26. I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than perfectly.

27. No matter how well I do I never feel satisfied with my performance.

28. I believe that rigorous practice makes for perfection.

29. I enjoy the glory gained by successes.

30. I gain deep satisfaction when I have perfected something.

31. I feel I have to be perfect to gain people’s approval.

32. My parents encouraged me to excel.

33. I worry what others think if I make mistakes.

34. I get fulfillment from totally dedicating myself to a task.

35. I like it when others recognize that what I do requires great skill and effort to perfect.

36. The better I do, the better I am expected to do by others.

37. I enjoy working towards greater levels of precision and accuracy.

38. I would rather not start something than risk doing it less than perfectly.

39. When I do things I feel others will judge critically the standard of my work.

40. I like the challenge of setting very high standards for myself.

Scoring:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale includes two subscales:

  • Positive perfectionism - items 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 37, 40.
  • Negative perfectionism - items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 26, 27, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39.

Item responses are summed to give individual subscale scores that can range from 20 to 100. Higher values indicate greater positive and negative perfectionism.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

A questionnaire to assess perfectionism, which includes setting excessive performance standards accompanied by self-criticism and concern of others’ expectations.

Purpose

This measure can be used to distinguish between the levels of positive and negative perfectionism-two constructs that distinguish between normal and neurotic perfectionism. Perfectionism is associated with psychological disorders, including eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and personality disorders.

Selection Rationale

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a relatively brief, widely used, reliable, and valid self-report questionnaire that is easy to administer, score, and interpret.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Eating Disorder Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale Assessment Scale4926442CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Terry-Short, L. A., Glynn Owens, R., Slade, P. D., & Dewey, M. E. (1995). Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 663-668.

General References

Bieling, P. J., Israeli, A. L., & Antony, M. M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and individual Differences, 36, 1373-1385.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Halt, C. S., Mattia, J. L. & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 99-126.

Haase, A. M., & Prapavessis, H. (2004). Assessing the factor structure and composition of the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale in sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(7), 1725-1740. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.01

Hewitt, G. L. & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456-470.

Slade, P. D., Coppel, D. B., & Townes, B. D. (2009). Neurocognitive correlates of positive and negative perfectionism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(10), 1741-1754.

Protocol ID:

650601

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Anxiety_FailurePX650601010000When I start something I feel anxious that I might fail.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Proud_DoWellPX650601020000My family and friends are proud of me when I do really well.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Pride_MeticulousPX650601030000I take pride in being meticulous when doing things.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Impossible_HighStandardsPX650601040000I set impossibly high standards for myself.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Avoid_DisapprovalPX650601050000I try to avoid the disapproval of others at all costs.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Praise_PerformancePX650601060000I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding performance.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Relax_WhenPerfectPX650601070000When I am doing something I cannot relax until it¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿s perfect.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Best_NotGoodEnoughPX650601080000It feels as though my best is never good enough for other people.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PerfectPerformance_RewardingPX650601090000Producing a perfect performance is a reward in its own right.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_ProblemOf_SuccessPX650601100000The problem of success is that I must work even harder.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Mistake_Whole_RuinedPX650601110000If I make a mistake I feel that the whole thing is ruined.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Higher_StandardPX650601120000I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am working towards a higher standard all the time.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FallShort_Want_ToBePX650601130000I know the kind of person I ought or want to be, but feel I always fall short of this.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Respect_AchievementsPX650601140000Other people respect me for my achievements.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_GoodEnoughPX650601150000As a child however well I did, it never seemed good enough to please my parents.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Everyone_WinnerPX650601160000I think everyone loves a winner.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_NothingLess_PerfectionPX650601170000Other people expect nothing less than perfection of me.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Competition_MotivatedByPX650601180000When I¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿m competing against others, I¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿m motivated by wanting to be the best.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGood_Push_LimitsPX650601190000I feel good when pushing out the limits.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Achieve_GoalsPX650601200000When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_HighStandards_Admired_OthersPX650601210000My high standards are admired by others.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Failure_Cease_RespectPX650601220000If I fail people, I fear they will cease to respect or care for me.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PleaseOthers_BySuccessPX650601230000I like to please other people by being successful.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_GainApproval_ByAccomplishmentsPX650601240000I gain great approval from others by the quality of my accomplishments.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_SuccessLeadTo_AchievementsPX650601250000My successes spur me on to greater achievements.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGuilty_LessPerfectPX650601260000I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than perfectly.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_Satisfied_WithPerformancePX650601270000No matter how well I do I never feel satisfied with my performance.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Practice_Makes_PerfectionPX650601280000I believe that rigorous practice makes for perfection.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Glory_From_SuccessPX650601290000I enjoy the glory gained by successes.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Satisfaction_FromPerfectionPX650601300000I gain deep satisfaction when I have perfected something.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BePerfect_GainApprovalPX650601310000I feel I have to be perfect to gain people¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿s approval.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Parents_EncouragementPX650601320000My parents encouraged me to excel.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Worry_OthersPX650601330000I worry what others think if I make mistakes.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Fullfillment_FromDedicationPX650601340000I get fulfillment from totally dedicating myself to a task.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Recognize_RequiredSkillsPX650601350000I like it when others recognize that what I do requires great skill and effort to perfect.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BetterPerformance_ByOthersPX650601360000The better I do, the better I am expected to do by others.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Enjoy_GreaterLevels_PrecisionAccuracyPX650601370000I enjoy working towards greater levels of precision and accuracy.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_NotStartIf_LessThanPerfectPX650601380000I would rather not start something than risk doing it less than perfectly.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Judged_CriticallyPX650601390000When I do things I feel others will judge critically the standard of my work.4N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Challenge_HighStandardsPX650601400000I like the challenge of setting very high standards for myself.4N/A