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Protocol - Exercise Dependence Scale

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Exercise Dependence Scale is a 21-item self-administered scale that can be administered in individual and group settings and has been used with respondents 18 years and older. Participants indicate their responses to each of the 21 items in the blank space provided after each item. They indicate their responses on a Likert scale anchored at the extremes with never (1) and always (6). The Exercise Dependence Scale requires approximately 5 minutes to complete.

Protocol:

Exercise Dependence Scale-21

Instructions. Using the scale provided below, please complete the following questions as honestly as possible. The questions refer to current exercise beliefs and behaviors that have occurred in the past 3 months. Please place your answer in the blank space provided after each statement.

1 Never

2

3

4

5

6 Always

1. I exercise to avoid feeling irritable._____

2. I exercise despite recurring physical problems._____

3. I continually increase my exercise intensity to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

4. I am unable to reduce how long I exercise._____

5. I would rather exercise than spend time with family/friends._____

6. I spend a lot of time exercising._____

7. I exercise longer than I intend._____

8. I exercise to avoid feeling anxious._____

9. I exercise when injured._____

10. I continually increase my exercise frequency to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

11. I am unable to reduce how often I exercise._____

12. I think about exercise when I should be concentrating on school/work._____

13. I spend most of my free time exercising._____

14. I exercise longer than I expect._____

15. I exercise to avoid feeling tense._____

16. I exercise despite persistent physical problems._____

17. I continually increase my exercise duration to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

18. I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise._____

19. I choose to exercise so that I can get out of spending time with family/friends._____

20. A great deal of my time is spent exercising.____

21. I exercise longer than I plan._____

Scoring:

The proposed scoring procedure for the Exercise Dependence Scale is computer based, which allows for immediate and accurate scoring. The computer scoring of the Exercise Dependence Scale is based on the SPSS (Statistic Package for the Social Sciences). A syntax file (see [slink[Eating Disorders Supplemental Information|https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.si.all&nimh=true]]) has been developed by the authors that enables immediate feedback to the Exercise Dependence Scale responses once the items are entered into SPSS. The syntax enables:

  1. Computing a total and subscale mean scores for Exercise Dependence Scale-21. A higher score indicates more exercise-dependent symptoms.

  2. Categorizing participants into either at-risk for exercise dependent, nondependent-symptomatic, or nondependent-asymptomatic groups. The categorization into one of the three groups is generated by a scoring manual that consists of flowchart decision rules in which items or combinations or items determine if an individual would be classified in the dependent, symptomatic, or asymptomatic range on each of the 7 DSM IV criteria. Individuals who are classified into the dependent range on 3 or more of the DSM criteria are classified as exercise dependence. The dependent range is operationalized as indicating a score of 5 or 6 for that item. Individuals who scored in the 3 to 4 range are classified as symptomatic. These individuals may theoretically be considered at-risk for exercise dependence. Finally, individuals who score in the 1-2 range are classified as asymptomatic.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

A questionnaire to assess dependence on exercise.

Purpose

Exercise dependence, which occurs when physical activity develops into a compulsive behavior, may have negative physical and psychological effects.

Selection Rationale

The Exercise Dependence Scale is a brief, valid, reliable and widely used scale that is consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for exercise dependence.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Exercise Dependency Questionnaire Assessment Score4925815CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Hausenblas, H. A., & Downs, D.S. (2002). How much is too much? The development and validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale. Psychology and Health, 17(4), 287-404.

General References

Cook, B.J., & Hausenblas, H.A. (2011). Eating disorder-specific health-related quality of life and exercise in college females. Quality of Life Research, 55(8), 1129-1141.

Costa, S., Hausenblas, H. A., Oliva, P., Cuzzocrea, F., & Larcan, R. (2013). The role of age, gender, mood states and exercise frequency on exercise dependence. Journal of Behavior Addictions, 2(4), 216-223.

Protocol ID:

650201

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_IrritablePX650201010000I exercise to avoid feeling irritable.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Despite_Recurring_Physical_ProblemsPX650201020000I exercise despite recurring physical problems.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Intensity_ForResultsPX650201030000I continually increase my exercise intensity to achieve the desired effects/benefits.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_UnableTo_Reduce_LengthPX650201040000I am unable to reduce how long I exercise.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Over_Social_ActivityPX650201050000I would rather exercise than spend time with family/friends.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Time_SpentPX650201060000I spend a lot of time exercising.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_IntendedPX650201070000I exercise longer than I intend.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_AnxiousPX650201080000I exercise to avoid feeling anxious.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_When_InjuredPX650201090000I exercise when injured.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Frequency_ForResultsPX650201100000I continually increase my exercise frequency to achieve the desired effects/benefits.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_UnableTo_Reduce_FrequencyPX650201110000I am unable to reduce how often I exercise.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Thoughts_InsteadOf_School_WorkPX650201120000I think about exercise when I should be concentrating on school/work.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_MajorityOf_Free_TimePX650201130000I spend most of my free time exercising.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_ExpectedPX650201140000I exercise longer than I expect.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_TensePX650201150000I exercise to avoid feeling tense.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Despite_Persistent_Physical_ProblemsPX650201160000I exercise despite persistent physical problems.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Duration_ForResultsPX650201170000I continually increase my exercise duration to achieve the desired effects/benefits.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Unable_Reduce_IntensityPX650201180000I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_InsteadOf_Social_ActivityPX650201190000I choose to exercise so that I can get out of spending time with family/friends.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_ExcuseFrom_Social_ActivityPX650201200000A great deal of my time is spent exercising.4N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_PlannedPX650201210000I exercise longer than I plan.4N/A