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Protocol - Deterrents to Suicide - Clinical - Adult

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This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Reasons for Living (RFL) inventory includes 48 self-report items that measures the respondent’s various reasons for living and their attitudes about living versus attempting or committing suicide. The RFL includes subscales for survival and coping beliefs, responsibility to family, child-related concerns, fear of suicide, fear of social disapproval, and moral objections. Each item is rated on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 ("not at all important") to 6 ("extremely important"). Ratings on the individual items are added together to give scores for individual subscales or to obtain an overall score for the whole inventory. Higher scores reflect greater reasons for living.

Protocol:

Reasons for Living

INSTRUCTIONS:

Many people have thought of suicide at least once. Others have never considered it. Whether you have considered it or not, we are interested in the reasons you would have for not committing suicide if the thought were to occur to you or if someone were to suggest it to you.

On the following pages are reasons people sometimes give for not committing suicide. We would like to know how important each of these possible reasons would be to you at this time in your life as a reason to not kill yourself. Please rate this in the space at the left on each question.

Each reason can be rated from 1 (Not At All Important) to 6 (Extremely Important). If a reason does not apply to you or if you do not believe the statement is true, then it is not likely important and you should put a 1. Please use the whole range of choices so as not to rate only at the middle (2, 3, 4, and 5) or only at the extremes (1, 6).

Even if you never have or firmly believe you never would seriously consider killing yourself, it is still important that you rate each reason. In this case, rate on the basis of why killing yourself is not or would never be an alternative for you.

1. I have a responsibility and commitment to my family.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

2. I believe I can learn to adjust or cope with my problems

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

3. I believe I have control over my life and destiny

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

4. I have a desire to live

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

5. I believe only God has the right to end a life

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

6. I am afraid of death

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

7. My family might believe I did not love them

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

8. I do not believe that things get miserable or hopeless enough that I would rather be dead

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

9. My family depends upon me and needs me

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

10. I do not want to die

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

11. I want to watch my children as they grow

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

12. Life is all we have and is better than nothing

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

13. I have future plans I am looking forward to carrying out

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

14. No matter how badly I feel, I know that it will not last

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

15. I am afraid of the unknown

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

16. I love and enjoy my family too much and could not leave them

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

17. I want to experience all that life has to offer and there are many experiences I haven’t had yet which I want to have

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

18. I am afraid that my method of killing myself would fail

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

19. I care enough about myself to live

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

20. Life is too beautiful and precious to end it

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

21. It would not be fair to leave the children for others to take care of

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

22. I believe I can find other solutions to my problems

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

23. I am afraid of going to hell

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

24. I have a love of life

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

25. I am too stable to kill myself

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

26. I am a coward and do not have the guts to do it

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

27. My religious beliefs forbid it

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

28. The effect on my children could be harmful

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

29. I am curious about what will happen in the future

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

30. It would hurt my family too much and I would not want them to suffer

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

31. I am concerned about what others would think of me

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

32. I believe everything has a way of working out for the best

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

33. I could not decide where, when, and how to do it

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

34. I consider it morally wrong

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

35. I still have many things left to do

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

36. I have the courage to face life

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

37. I am happy and content with my life

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

38. I am afraid of the actual "act" of killing myself (the pain, blood, violence)

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

39. I believe killing myself would not really accomplish or solve anything

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

40. I have hope that things will improve and the future will be happier

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

41. Other people would think I am weak and selfish

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

42. I have an inner drive to survive

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

43. I would not want people to think I did not have control over my life

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

44. I believe I can find a purpose in life, a reason to live

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

45. I see no reason to hurry death along

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

46. I am so inept that my method would not work

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

47. I would not want my family to feel guilty afterwards

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

48. I would not want my family to think I was selfish or a coward

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

Scoring:

Survival and Coping Beliefs: items 1-24.

Responsibility to Family: items 25-31.

Child-Related Concerns: items 32-34.

Fear of Suicide: items 35-41.

Fear of Social Disapproval: items 42-44.

Moral Objections: items 45-48.

Ratings on the individual items are added together to give scores for individual subscales or to obtain an overall score for the whole inventory. Higher scores reflect greater reasons for living.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult

Specific Instructions:

This protocol includes questions that can potentially identify respondents who are at risk of suicide. Investigators implementing this protocol should consider developing a risk management plan specific to their study to ensure the safety of participants. The following links provide additional information and guidelines for suicide-related research:

[link[ora.research.ucla.edu/OHRPP/Documents/Policy/8/Risk_of_Suicide.pdf|ora.research.ucla.edu/OHRPP/Documents/Policy/8/Risk_of_Suicide.pdf]]

[link[www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/issues-to-consider-in-intervention-research-with-persons-at-high-risk-for-suicidality.shtml|www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/issues-to-consider-in-intervention-research-with-persons-at-high-risk-for-suicidality.shtml]]

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2014

Definition

A questionnaire to assess protective factors that are deterrents to suicide behavior.

Purpose

The presence of protective factors and their interaction with risk factors can help indicate suicide risk.

Selection Rationale

The Reasons for Living (RFL) inventory is a brief, low-burden, widely used questionnaire with good internal reliability, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity. The RFL can also be used to capture changes in beliefs (e.g., reductions in suicide behaviors).

Language

Chinese, English, French, Romanian

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Adult Reasons for Living (RFL) Inventory Score4588829CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Linehan, M., Goodstein, J. L., Nielsen, S. L., & Chiles, J. A. (1983). Reasons for staying alive when you are thinking about killing yourself: The Reasons For Living Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(2): 276-286.

General References

Britton, P. C., Duberstein, P. R., Conner, K. R., Heisel, M. J., Hirsch, J. K., & Conwell, Y. (2008). Reasons for living, hopelessness, and suicide ideation among depressed adults 50 years or older. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(9), 736-741.

Richardson-Vejlgaard, R., Sher, L., Oquendo, M. A., Lizardi, D., & Stanley, B. (2009). Objections to suicide among depressed patients with alcohol use disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 117(3), 197-201.

Protocol ID:

640902

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX640902_Suicide_Responsibility_To_FamilyPX640902010100I have a responsibility and commitment to my family4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Cope_With_ProblemsPX640902010200I believe I can learn to adjust or cope with my problems4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Have_Control_Over_LifePX640902010300I believe I have control over my life and destiny4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Desire_To_LivePX640902010400I have a desire to live4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Right_To_End_LifePX640902010500I believe only God has the right to end a life4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Afraid_Of_DeathPX640902010600I am afraid of death4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Family_LovePX640902010700My family might believe I did not love them4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Not_Miserable_EnoughPX640902010800I do not believe that things get miserable or hopeless enough that I would rather be dead4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Family_NeedsPX640902010900My family depends upon me and needs me4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Want_To_DiePX640902011000I do not want to die4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Children_GrowPX640902011100I want to watch my children as they grow4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Better_Than_NothingPX640902011200Life is all we have and is better than nothing4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Future_PlansPX640902011300I have future plans I am looking forward to carrying out4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Will_Not_LastPX640902011400No matter how badly I feel, I know that it will not last4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Afraid_Of_UnknownPX640902011500I am afraid of the unknown4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Enjoy_FamilyPX640902011600I love and enjoy my family too much and could not leave them4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Experience_LifePX640902011700I want to experience all that life has to offer and there are many experiences I haven't had yet which I want to have4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Killing_Method_FailPX640902011800I am afraid that my method of killing myself would fail4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Care_To_LivePX640902011900I care enough about myself to live4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Life_Is_BeautifulPX640902012000Life is too beautiful and precious to end it4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Leave_Children_For_OthersPX640902012100It would not be fair to leave the children for others to take care of4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Find_Solutions_To_ProblemsPX640902012200I believe I can find other solutions to my problems4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Afraid_Of_HellPX640902012300I am afraid of going to hell4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Love_Of_LifePX640902012400I have a love of life4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_StablePX640902012500I am too stable to kill myself4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_CowardPX640902012600I am a coward and do not have the guts to do it4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Religious_Beliefs_ForbidPX640902012700My religious beliefs forbid it4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Effect_On_ChildrenPX640902012800The effect on my children could be harmful4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Curious_About_FuturePX640902012900I am curious about what will happen in the future4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Hurt_FamilyPX640902013000It would hurt my family too much and I would not want them to suffer4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Concerned_About_OthersPX640902013100I am concerned about what others would think of me4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Working_OutPX640902013200I believe everything has a way of working out for the best4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Could_Not_DecidePX640902013300I could not decide where, when, and how to do it4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Morally_WrongPX640902013400I consider it morally wrong4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Things_LeftPX640902013500I still have many things left to do4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Courage_To_Face_LifePX640902013600I have the courage to face life4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Happy_With_LifePX640902013700I am happy and content with my life4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Afraid_Of_KillingPX640902013800I am afraid of the actual "act" of killing myself (the pain, blood, violence)4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Not_Solve_AnythingPX640902013900I believe killing myself would not really accomplish or solve anything4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Things_Will_ImprovePX640902014000I have hope that things will improve and the future will be happier4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Other_Think_WeakPX640902014100Other people would think I am weak and selfish4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Drive_To_SurvivePX640902014200I have an inner drive to survive4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Control_Over_LifePX640902014300I would not want people to think I did not have control over my life4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Find_Reason_To_LivePX640902014400I believe I can find a purpose in life, a reason to live4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_No_Reason_DeathPX640902014500I see no reason to hurry death along4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Inept_Not_WorkPX640902014600I am so inept that my method would not work4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Family_Feel_GuiltyPX640902014700I would not want my family to feel guilty afterwards4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_Family_Think_SelfishPX640902014800I would not want my family to think I was selfish or a coward4N/A
PX640902_Suicide_ScoringPX640902014900Ratings on the individual items are added together to give scores for individual subscales or to obtain an overall score for the whole inventory. Higher scores reflect greater reasons for living.4N/A