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Protocol - Deterrents to Suicide - Clinical - Child

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Reasons for Living for Adolescents (RFL-A) inventory includes 32 self-report items that measure the adolescent respondent’s various reasons for living and their attitudes about living versus committing suicide. The RFL-A includes subscales for family alliance, suicide-related concerns, self-acceptance, peer-acceptance and support, and future optimism. Each item is rated on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 ("not at all important") to 6 ("extremely important"). Ratings for each subscale are constructed by calculating the mean rating for all items in the subscale. The total RFL‑A score is constructed by calculating the mean rating for all items.

Protocol:

Reasons for Living for Adolescents

The questionnaire lists specific reasons that people sometimes have for not committing suicide, if the thought were to occur to them or if someone were to suggest it to them. Please read each statement carefully, and then choose the number that best describes how important each reason is to you for not committing suicide.

Use the scale below and circle the appropriate number in the space to the right of each statement. Please use the whole range of choices so as not to rate only at the middle (2, 3, 4, and 5) or only at the extremes (1, 6).

How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide?

1. Whenever I have a problem, I can turn to my family for support or advice.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

2. It would be painful and frightening to take my own life.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

3. I accept myself for what I am.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

4. I have a lot to look forward to as I grow older.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

5. My friends stand by me whenever I have a problem.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

6. I feel loved and accepted by my close friends.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

7. I feel emotionally close to my family.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

8. I am afraid to die, so I would not consider killing myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

9. I like myself just the way I am.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

10. My friends care a lot about me.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

11. I would like to accomplish my plans or goals in the future.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

12. My family takes the time to listen to my experiences at school, work, or home.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

13. I expect many good things to happen to me in the future.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

14. I am satisfied with myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

15. I am hopeful about my plans or goals for the future.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

16. I believe my friends appreciate me when I am with them.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

17. I enjoy being with my family.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

18. I feel that I am an OK person.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

19. I expect to be successful in the future.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

20. The thought of killing myself scares me.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

21. I am afraid of using any method to kill myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

22. I can count on my friends to help if I have a problem.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

23. Most of the time, my family encourages and supports my plans or goals.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

24. My family cares about the way I feel.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

25. My future looks quite hopeful and promising.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

26. I am afraid of killing myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

27. My friends accept me for what I really am.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

28. I have many future plans I am looking forward to carrying out in the future.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

29. I feel good about myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

30. My family cares a lot about what would happen to me.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

31. I am happy with myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

32. I would be frightened or afraid to make plans for killing myself.

[ ] 1 Not At All Important

[ ] 2 Quite Unimportant

[ ] 3 Somewhat Unimportant

[ ] 4 Somewhat Important

[ ] 5 Quite Important

[ ] 6 Extremely Important

Scoring:

Family Alliance (FA) Scale (7 items)

  • Calculate mean rating for items: 1, 7, 12, 17, 23, 24, and 30.

Suicide-related Concerns (SRC) Scale (6 items)

  • Calculate mean rating for items: 2, 8, 20, 21, 26, and 32.

Self-Acceptance (SA) Scale (6 items)

  • Calculate mean rating for items: 3, 9, 14, 18, 29, and 31.

Peer-Acceptance and Support (PAS) Scale (6 items)

  • Calculate mean rating for items: 5, 6, 10, 15, 22, and 27.

Future Optimism (FO) Scale (7 items)

  • Calculate mean rating for items: 4, 11, 13, 15, 19, 25, and 28.

Total Score

  • Calculate mean rating for items 1 to 32.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

This protocol includes questions that can potentially identify respondents who are at risk of suicide. Investigators implementing this protocol should consider developing a risk management plan specific to their study to ensure the safety of participants. The following links provide additional information and guidelines for suicide-related research:

[link[ora.research.ucla.edu/OHRPP/Documents/Policy/8/Risk_of_Suicide.pdf|ora.research.ucla.edu/OHRPP/Documents/Policy/8/Risk_of_Suicide.pdf]]

[link[www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/issues-to-consider-in-intervention-research-with-persons-at-high-risk-for-suicidality.shtml|www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/issues-to-consider-in-intervention-research-with-persons-at-high-risk-for-suicidality.shtml]]

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2014

Definition

A questionnaire to assess protective factors that are deterrents to suicide behavior.

Purpose

The presence of protective factors and their interaction with risk factors can help indicate suicide risk.

Selection Rationale

The Reasons for Living for Adolescents (RFL-A) inventory is a brief, low-burden, widely used questionnaire with good internal reliability, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. The RFL-A can also be used to capture changes in beliefs (e.g., reductions in suicide behaviors).

Language

Chinese, English, French, Romanian

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Adolescent Reason for Living (RFL-A) Inventory Score4588826CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Osman, A., Kopper, B. A., Barrios, F. X., Besett, T. M., Linehan, M. M., Baker, M. T., & Osman J. R. (1996). The brief Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (BRFL-A). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24(4), 433-443.

General References

Molock, S. D., Puri, R., Matlin, S., & Barksdale, C. (2006). Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents. The Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3): 366-389.

Robinson, J., Hetrick, S., Gook, S., Cosgrave, E., Yuen, H. P., McGorry, P., & Yung, A. (2009). Study protocol: the development of a randomised controlled trial testing a postcard intervention designed to reduce suicide risk among young help-seekers. BMC Psychiatry, 23(9) 59.

Osman, A., Downs, W. R., Kopper, B. A., Barrios, F. X., Baker, M. T., Osman J. R., Besett, T. M., & Linehan, M. M. (1998). The Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (RFL-A): Development and psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(8), 1063-1078.

Protocol ID:

640901

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX640901_Suicide_Problem_Support_AdvicePX640901010100How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? Whenever I have a problem, I can turn to my family for support or advice.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Painful_FrighteningPX640901010200How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? It would be painful and frightening to take my own life.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Accept_MyselfPX640901010300How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide?I accept myself for what I am.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Grow_OlderPX640901010400How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? . I have a lot to look forward to as I grow older.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Friends_Stand_ByMePX640901010500How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? y friends stand by me whenever I have a problem.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Loved_AcceptedPX640901010600How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide?I feel loved and accepted by my close friends.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Emotionally_Close_FamilyPX640901010700How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I feel emotionally close to my family.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Afraid_To_DiePX640901010800How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am afraid to die, so I would not consider killing myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Like_MyselfPX640901010900How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I like myself just the way I am.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Friends_CarePX640901011000How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My friends care a lot about me.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Frightened_To_MakePlansPX640901013200How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I would be frightened or afraid to make plans for killing myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Deterrent_ScoringPX640901013300Family Alliance (FA) Scale (7 items) ¿¿¿ Calculate mean rating for items: 1, 7, 12, 17, 23, 24, and 30. Suicide-related Concerns (SRC) Scale (6 items) ¿¿¿ Calculate mean rating for items: 2, 8, 20, 21, 26, and 32. Self-Acceptance (SA) Scale (6 items) ¿¿¿ Calculate mean rating for items: 3, 9, 14, 18, 29, and 31. Peer-Acceptance and Support (PAS) Scale (6 items) ¿¿¿ Calculate mean rating for items: 5, 6, 10, 15, 22, and 27. Future Optimism (FO) Scale (7 items) ¿¿¿ Calculate mean rating for items: 4, 11, 13, 15, 19, 25, and 28. Total Score Calculate mean rating for items 1 to 32.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Plans_FuturePX640901011100How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I would like to accomplish my plans or goals in the future.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Family_ListensPX640901011200How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My family takes the time to listen to my experiences at school, work, or home.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Expect_Good_FuturePX640901011300How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I expect many good things to happen to me in the future.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_SatisfiedPX640901011400How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am satisfied with myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Hopefully_FuturePX640901011500How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am hopeful about my plans or goals for the future.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Friends_AppreciateMePX640901011600How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I believe my friends appreciate me when I am with them.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Enjoy_FamilyPX640901011700How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I enjoy being with my family.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Feel_OKPX640901011800How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I feel that I am an OK person.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Expect_SuccessPX640901011900How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I expect to be successful in the future.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Scares_MePX640901012000How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? The thought of killing myself scares me.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Afraid_Of_ MethodsPX640901012100How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am afraid of using any method to kill myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Count_OnFriendsPX640901012200How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I can count on my friends to help if I have a problem.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Family_SupportPX640901012300How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? Most of the time, my family encourages and supports my plans or goals.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Family_Cares_FeelingsPX640901012400How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My family cares about the way I feel.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Future_Hopeful_PromisingPX640901012500How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My future looks quite hopeful and promising.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Afraid_Of_KillingPX640901012600How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am afraid of killing myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Friends_AcceptMePX640901012700How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My friends accept me for what I really am.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Future_PlansPX640901012800How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I have many future plans I am looking forward to carrying out in the future.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Feel_GoodPX640901012900How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I feel good about myself.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Family_Cares_WhatHappensPX640901013000How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? My family cares a lot about what would happen to me.4N/A
PX640901_Suicide_Happy_With_SelfPX640901013100How important to you is this reason for not committing suicide? I am happy with myself.4N/A