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Protocol - Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

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Protocol Name from Source:

Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a self-reported instrument that includes 48 yes/no questions divided into two subscales: Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP).

Protocol:

Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Please answer the following questions by checking either yes or no.

Yes

No

1. Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal?

2. Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things?

3. Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it?

4. Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family?

5. Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations?

6. Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive?

7. Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know?

8. Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them?

9. Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization?

10. Do you often do things to be praised?

11. As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school?

12. Do you like being the center of attention at a party or a social meeting?

13. In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure?

14. Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image?

15. Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations?

16. Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time?

17. Are you a shy person?

18. When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest?

19. Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed?

20. Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive?

21. When you are with a group, do you have difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about?

22. As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people’s approval?

23. Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do?

24. Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair?

25. Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared?

26. Do you generally give preferences to those activities that imply an immediate gain?

27. Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change?

28. Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things?

29. Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places?

30. Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win?

31. Are you often worried by things that you said or did?

32. Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events?

33. Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)?

34. Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events?

35. Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public?

36. When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often difficult for you to stop?

37. Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear?

38. Do you sometimes do things for quick gains?

39. Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things?

40. Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger?

41. Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired?

42. Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs?

43. Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others?

44. Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities?

45. Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events?

46. Would you like to be a socially powerful person?

47. Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed?

48. Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?

Scoring:

Subscale scores are derived by summing the responses of the individual items.

Sensitivity to reward subscale: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48.

Sensitivity to punishment subscale: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Specific Instructions:

Two self-report measures exist that were designed specifically to assess reinforcement sensitivity according to Gray’s model of personality (Gray, 1981; Gray, 1982): The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver and White, 1994) and the Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ; Torrubia et al., 2001). Although the BIS/BAS scales have been applied most frequently in behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, some have criticized the scales’ approach toward measuring ‘‘generalized sensitivity to reward and punishment, while Gray’s theory deals with sensitivity to specific cues’’ (Carver and White, 1994; Torrubia et al., 2001; Zinbarg and Revelle, 1989; Matthews and Gililand, 1999). In response to that criticism, the SPSRQ was developed to test behavior inhibition and activation systems employing questions related to very specific cues and situations. The SPSRQ has been validated for use with people with eating disorders (Beck et al., 2009), supporting the assessment of reward sensitivity in anorexia nervosa. Additionally, the SPSRQ has been shown to be more sensitive than the BIS/BAS scales in distinguishing between participants with eating disorders. In particular, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) subscale from the SPSRQ can distinguish those with eating disorders more accurately than the comparable BAS subscale from the BIS/BAS (Jappe et al., 2011; Matton et al., 2013; Matton et al., 2015).

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the participant’s sensitivity to two motivational systems: the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS).

Purpose

The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) alerts the person to danger and punishment through feelings of anxiety and therefore inhibits behavior that leads to negative consequences. The behavioral activation system (BAS) alerts the person to reward through feelings of elation and therefore promotes behavior that leads to positive consequences. Various psychological disorders-such as attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse-may result from an imbalance in one motivational system or the other (Bijttebier et al., 2009).

Selection Rationale

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a validated, reliable, self-administered instrument that is easy to score and interpret. In comparison to other questionnaires that measure Reinforcement Sensitivity (e.g., the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system [BIS/BAS] scales), the SPSRQ performs better in populations with eating disorders.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Eating Disorder Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire Assessment Scale4926458CDE Browser

Process and Review

The [link[phenx.org/node/101|Expert Review Panel #3]] (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Molto, J., & Caseras, X. (2001). The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray’s anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(6), 837-862.

General References

Beck, I., Smits, D. J. M., Claes, L., Vandereycken, W., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scales and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire in a sample of eating disordered patients. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 407-412

Bijttebier, P., Beck, I., Claes, L., & Vandereycken, W. (2009). Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 421-430.

Burgess, E. E., Turan, B., Lokken, K. L., Morse, A., & Boggiano, M. M. (2014). Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale. Appetite, 72, 66-72.

Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319-333.

Cogswell, A., Alloy, L. B., van Dulmen M. H. M., & Fresco, D. M. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of behavioral inhibition and approach self-report measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1649-1658.

Davis, G. (2013). A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 1-9.

Glashouwer, K. A., Bloot, L., Veenstra, E. M., Franken, I. H. A., & De Jong, P. J. (2014). Heightened sensitivity to punishment and reward in anorexia nervosa. Appetite, 75, 97-102.

Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H.J. Eysenck (ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246-276). New York: Springer.

Gray, J. A. (1982). Neuropsychological theory of anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hennegan, J. M., Loxton, N. J., & Mattar, A. (2013). Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating. Appetite, 71, 81-88.

Jappe, L. M., Frank, G. K. W., Shott, M. E., Rollin, M. D. H., Pryor, T., Hagman, J. O., Yang, T. T., & Davis, E. (2011). Heightened sensitivity to reward and punishment in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44, 317-324.

Matthews, G., & Gilliland, K. (1999). The personality theories of H. J. Eysenck and J. A. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583-626.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Braet, C., & Vervaet, M. (2013). Punishment and reward sensitivity: Are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents? European Eating Disorders Review, 21, 184-194.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Vervaet, M., & Braet, C. (2015). Temperamental differences between adolescents and young adults with or without an eating disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry 56, 229-238.

Zinbarg, R., & Revelle, W. (1989). Personality and conditioning: a test of four models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 301-314.

Protocol ID:

540603

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotDoSomething_Fear_LegalityPX540603010000Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ProspectOf_Money_MotivationPX540603020000Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotToAskWhen_NotSure_ObtainablePX540603030000Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Encouraged_ToAct_ToBe_ValuedPX540603040000Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Afraid_NewUnexpected_SituationsPX540603050000Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Meet_People_Physically_AttractivePX540603060000Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Telephone_StrangerPX540603070000Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Get_Pleasure_From_DrugsPX540603080000Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Renounce_Rights_Avoid_QuarrelPX540603090000Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Do_Things_ForPraisePX540603100000Do you often do things to be praised?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_TroubledBy_Punishments_At_HomeSchoolPX540603110000As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CenterOf_Attention_PartySocialMeetingPX540603120000Do you like being the center of attention at a party or a social meeting?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ImportanceOn_PossibilityOf_FailurePX540603130000In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Time_Spent_Obtaining_ImagePX540603140000Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DiscouragedIn_Difficult_SituationsPX540603150000Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Need_Constant_ShowOf_AffectionPX540603160000Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Shy_PersonPX540603170000Are you a shy person?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_InGroup_Make_MostIntelligentFunniest_CommentsPX540603180000When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Demonstrating_Fear_EmbarrassmentPX540603190000Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_PickUp_Attractive_PeoplePX540603200000Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Group_Difficulty_Discussion_TopicPX540603210000When you are with a group, do you have difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_Approval_AsChildPX540603220000As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿s approval?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Sleep_ThingsToDoPX540603230000Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_SocialAdvancement_Motivation_NotFairPlayPX540603240000Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ThinkBefore_Complaining_Restaurant_MealPX540603250000Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_GivePreferenceTo_Activities_With_ImmediateGainPX540603260000Do you generally give preferences to those activities that imply an immediate gain?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_BotheredTo_Return_Store_WrongChangePX540603270000Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Resisting_Temptation_ForbiddenThingsPX540603280000Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Going_Unknown_PlacesPX540603290000Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Compete_DoEverythingPX540603300000Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_WorriedBy_Things_You_SaidDidPX540603310000Are you often worried by things that you said or did?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Associate_TastesSmells_Pleasant_EventsPX540603320000Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_Ask_Boss_SalaryIncreasePX540603330000Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Objects_Sensations_Reminder_PleasantEventsPX540603340000Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Public_SpeakingPX540603350000Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_ToStop_SlotMachinePX540603360000When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often difficult for you to stop?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CouldDoMore_Without_InsecurityFearPX540603370000Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_QuickGainsPX540603380000Do you sometimes do things for quick gains?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_FearOf_Many_ThingsPX540603390000Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DistractedFrom_Work_Attractive_StrangerPX540603400000Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Worry_Impairs_intellectual_PerformancePX540603410000Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Money_Motivate_Risky_JobsPX540603420000Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Avoid_DisapprovalRejectionPX540603430000Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Competitive_Ingredients_All_ActivitiesPX540603440000Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_More_Attention_To_ThreatsPX540603450000Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Socially_Powerful_PersonPX540603460000Would you like to be a socially powerful person?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Fear_EmbarrassmentPX540603470000Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed?4N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Display_PhysicalAbilities_Involve_DangerPX540603480000Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?4N/A