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Protocol - Family Risk and Protective Factors

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Protocol Name from Source:

Communities That Care Youth Survey

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The protocol includes 38 self-administered questions from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/). This protocol includes seven subscales: Poor Family Management (8 items on a 4-point scale), Family Conflict (3 items on a 4-point scale), Parental Attitudes Favorable to Antisocial Behavior (3 items on a 4-point scale), Attachment (4 items on a 4-point scale ), Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (3 items on a 4-point scale), Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (4 items on a 4-point scale), Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use (3 items), and Family History of Antisocial Behavior (including Drug Use) (10 items on a 5-point scale). Attachment, Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement, and Rewards for Prosocial Involvement are protective (or promotive) factors; the remaining subscales are risk factors.

Protocol:

Communities That Care 2010 Youth Survey

Instructions

1. This is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers; we would like you to work quickly, so that you can finish.

2. All of the questions should be answered by marking one of the answer spaces. If you don’t find an answer that fits exactly, use one that comes closest. If any question does not apply to you, or you are not sure what it means, just leave it blank.

3. Your answers will be read automatically by a computer. Please follow the instructions carefully.

  • Use only a blue or black pencil.
  • Make heavy marks inside the circles.
  • Erase cleanly or mark a big "X" over any answer you wish to change.
  • Make no other markings or comments on the answer pages, since they interfere with the automatic reading. (If you want to add a comment about any questions, please use the space provided on page 12.)

4. Some of the questions have the following format:

Please mark in the circle which of the four words best describes how you feel about that sentence.

EXAMPLE: The Seattle Storm is a good basketball team.

[ ] YES!

[ ] yes

[ ] no

[ ] NO!

Mark (the BIG) YES! if you think the statement is definitely true for you.

Mark (the little) yes if you think the statement is mostly true for you.

Mark (the little) no if you think the statement is mostly not true for you.

Mark (the BIG) NO! if you think the statement is definitely not true for you.

This set of questions asks about your family. When answering these questions please think about the people you consider to be your family. For example, parents, stepparents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

1. How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to (108):

a. drink beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) regularly (at least once or twice a month)?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

b. smoke cigarettes?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

c. smoke marijuana?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

d. steal something worth more than $5?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

e. draw graffiti, or write things or draw pictures on buildings or other property (without the owner’s permission)?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

f. pick a fight with someone?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

2. Have any of your brothers or sisters ever (109):

a. drunk beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin)?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

b. smoked marijuana?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

c. smoked cigarettes?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

d. taken a handgun to school?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

e. been suspended or expelled from school?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

3. The rules in my family are clear. (110)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

4. Has anyone in your family ever had a severe alcohol or drug problem? (111)

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

5. People in my family often insult or yell at each other. (112)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

6. When I am not at home, one of my parents knows where I am and who I am with. (113)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

7. We argue about the same things in my family over and over. (114)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

8. If you drank some beer or wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) without your parents’ permission, would you be caught by your parents? (115)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

9. My family has clear rules about alcohol and drug use. (116)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

10. If you carried a handgun without your parents’ permission, would you be caught by your parents? (117)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

11. If you skipped school, would you be caught by your parents? (118)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

12. My parents notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. (119)

1 [ ] Never or almost never

2 [ ] Sometimes

3 [ ] Often

4 [ ] All the Time

13. Do you feel very close to your mother? (120)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

14. Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your mother? (121)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

15. My parents ask me what I think before most family decisions affecting me are made. (122)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

16. How often do your parents tell you they’re proud of you for something you’ve done? (123)

1 [ ] Never or almost never

2 [ ] Sometimes

3 [ ] Often

4 [ ] All the Time

17. Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your father? (124)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

18. Do you enjoy spending time with your mother? (125)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

19. Do you enjoy spending time with your father? (126)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

20. If I had a personal problem, I could ask my mom or dad for help. (127)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

21. Do you feel very close to your father? (128)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

22. My parents give me lots of chances to do fun things with them. (129)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

23. My parents ask if I’ve gotten my homework done. (130)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

24. People in my family have serious arguments. (131)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

25. Would your parents know if you did not come home on time? (132)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

26. About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: (92)

a. used marijuana, crack, cocaine, or other drugs?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

b. sold or dealt drugs?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

c. done other things that could get them in trouble with the police like stealing, selling stolen goods, mugging or assaulting others, etc.

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

d. gotten drunk or high?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

Scoring

Subscale

Reliability

Range

Scoring

Poor Family Management

.87

1-4

Average items 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 23, 25

Family Conflict

.73

1-4

Average items 5, 7, 24

Parental Attitudes Favorable to Antisocial Behavior

.83

1-4

Average items 1d, 1e, 1f,

Attachment

.81

1-4

Average items 13, 14, 17, 21

Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement

.82

1-4

Average items: 15, 20, 22

Rewards for Prosocial Involvement

.80

1-4

Average items 12, 16, 18, 19

Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use

.86

1-4

Average items 1a, 1b, 1c

Family History of Antisocial Behavior (including Drug Use)

.87 (drug only: .82)

1-5

Average items 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 4, 26a, 26b, 26c, 26d (Drug only: 2a, 2b, 2c, 4, 26a, 26b, 26d).

Comparison with the CTC Normative Database.

Note: To obtain scores on the same metric as the CTC normative database, subtract 1 (from either each item, or from the means).

General Summary Scales

Scoring: averages of the above subscales

General Family Risk

.89

1-4

1) Reverse: Opportunities, Rewards, Attachment

2) Average: Opportunities-R, Rewards-R, Attachment-R, Poor Management, Conflict

Family Drug Risk

.87

1-5

Average: Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use; Family History of Drug Use

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

Items below are subscales from the Communities That Care [CTC] 2010 Youth Survey. Item numbers at the end in parentheses reflect the original item numbers in that survey for comparison. See the full CTC Survey in the reference list for comparison. The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes, and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes, and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the level and prevalence of adolescents’ exposure to substance use risk and protective factors in the family environment.

Purpose

This measure can be used to identify the specific family-related elevated risk and depressed protective factors that can predict adolescent (and later life) substance use and abuse.

Selection Rationale

The Communities That Care Youth Survey is in the public domain and is available at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website. The survey reliably predicts current and prospective substance use, abuse and dependence, and related problem behaviors among adolescents. SAMHSA’s database of 300,000 youths from around the country enables investigators to derive nationally representative normative distributions for comparison with newly collected data.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Available in other languages

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Substance use Family Risk Factor Questionnaire Assessment Score3371929CDE Browser

Process and Review

The [link[phenx.org/node/101|Expert Review Panel #3]] (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive ([link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=resources.archive|link]])

Source

Arthur, M. W., Briney, J. S., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., Brooke-Weiss, B. L., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Measuring risk and protection in communities using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(2), 197-211.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Communities That Care (CTC) Youth Survey. Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Communities-That-Care-Youth-Survey/CTC020

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Communities That Care Normative Database (CTC NDB). Retrieved October 24, 2011, from https://www.pmrts.samhsa.gov/pmrts/CommunitiesCares.aspx

General References

http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/research-results/

Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Meacham, M. C., Young, S. E., & Hawkins, J. D. (2011). Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: General and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co‐occurring problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3), 444-451.

Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross‐national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(1), 3-16.

Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630-637.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance‐abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Guo, J., & Battin, S. R. (1998, June). Common predictors of substance abuse, mental health and behavior disorders: Implications for prevention. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science, NIH Workshop on Prevention of Comorbidity, Bethesda, MD.

Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in the United States and Australia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 312-320.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86‐105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.); Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for prevention intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Protocol ID:

540301

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_DrinkPX540301010100How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: drink beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) regularly (at least once or twice a month)?4N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_CigarettesPX540301010200How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: smoke cigarettes?4N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_MarijuanaPX540301010300How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: smoke marijuana?4N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_StealPX540301010400How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: steal something worth more than $5?4N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_GraffitPX540301010500How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: draw graffiti, or write things or draw pictures on buildings or other property (without the owner's permission)?4N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_FightPX540301010600How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: pick a fight with someone?4N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_DrunkPX540301020100Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: drunk beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin)?4N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_Smoked_MarijuanaPX540301020200Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: smoked marijuana?4N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_Smoked_CigarettesPX540301020300Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: smoked cigarettes?4N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Taken_Handgun_SchoolPX540301020400Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: taken a handgun to school?4N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Been_Suspended_ExpelledPX540301020500Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: been suspended or expelled from school?4N/A
PX540301_Family_Rules_Are_ClearPX540301030000The rules in my family are clear.4N/A
PX540301_Family_Member_Alcohol_Drug_ProblemPX540301040000Has anyone in your family ever had a severe alcohol or drug problem?4N/A
PX540301_Family_Often_Insult_YellPX540301050000People in my family often insult or yell at each other.4N/A
PX540301_Parents_Know_Where_I_AmPX540301060000When I am not at home, one of my parents knows where I am and who I am with.4N/A
PX540301_Family_Argue_Same_ThingsPX540301070000We argue about the same things in my family over and over.4N/A
PX540301_Beer_Caught_By_ParentsPX540301080000If you drank some beer or wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) without your parents' permission, would you be caught by your parents?4N/A
PX540301_Family_Has_Rules_Alcohol_DrugPX540301090000My family has clear rules about alcohol and drug use.4N/A
PX540301_Carried_Handgun_Caught_By_ParentsPX540301100000If you carried a handgun without your parents' permission, would you be caught by your parents?4N/A
PX540301_Skipped_School_Caught_By_ParentsPX540301110000If you skipped school, would you be caught by your parents?4N/A
PX540301_Parents_Notice_Good_JobPX540301120000My parents notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it.4N/A
PX540301_Close_To_Your_MotherPX540301130000Do you feel very close to your mother?4N/A
PX540301_Share_Thoughts_Feelings_With_MotherPX540301140000Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your mother?4N/A
PX540301_Frequency_Parents_ProudPX540301160000How often do your parents tell you they're proud of you for something you've done?4N/A
PX540301_Share_Thoughts_Feelings_With_FatherPX540301170000Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your father?4N/A
PX540301_Enjoy_Spending_Time_With_MotherPX540301180000Do you enjoy spending time with your mother?4N/A
PX540301_Enjoy_Spending_Time_With_FatherPX540301190000Do you enjoy spending time with your father?4N/A
PX540301_Ask_Mom_Dad_For_HelpPX540301200000If I had a personal problem, I could ask my mom or dad for help.4N/A
PX540301_Feel_Very_Close_To_FatherPX540301210000Do you feel very close to your father?4N/A
PX540301_Chances_For_Fun_With_ParentsPX540301220000My parents give me lots of chances to do fun things with them.4N/A
PX540301_Parents_Ask_Homework_DonePX540301230000My parents ask if I've gotten my homework done.4N/A
PX540301_Family_Serious_ArgumentsPX540301240000People in my family have serious arguments.4N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Used_DrugsPX540301260100About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: used marijuana, crack, cocaine, or other drugs?4N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Sold_Dealt_DrugsPX540301260200About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: sold or dealt drugs?4N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Done_Other_ThingsPX540301260300About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: done other things that could get them in trouble with the police like stealing, selling stolen goods, mugging or assaulting others, etc.4N/A
PX540301_Adults_Gotten_Drunk_Or_HighPX540301260400About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: gotten drunk or high?4N/A
PX540301_Parents_Know_Not_Home_TimePX540301250000Would your parents know if you did not come home on time?4N/A