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Protocol - Disruptive Behavior

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Protocol Name from Source:

Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBDRS)

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBDRS) is a proxy-administered (parent or teacher) questionnaire that is based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV), diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). As such, it includes subscales for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, oppositional defiance, and conduct disorder. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 ("not at all") to 3 ("very much"). Users can generate composite scores or scores for individual subscales. Scoring instructions hold for both DSM-IV and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5).

Protocol:

Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale

Instructions:

Check the column that best describes your/this child. Please write DK next to any items for which you don’t know the answer.

1. Has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

2. Often argues with adults

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

3. Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., "cons" others)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

4. Has been physically cruel to people

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

5. Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

6. Often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

7. Is often spiteful or vindictive

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

8. Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

9. Has deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

10. Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

11. Often initiates physical fights with others who do not live in his or her household (e.g., peers at school or in the neighborhood)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

12. Is often angry and resentful

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

13. Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

14. Often loses temper

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

15. Has forced someone into sexual activity

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

16. Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

17. Has been physically cruel to animals

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

18. Often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

19. Often deliberately annoys people

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

20. Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

21. Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

22. Has broken into someone else’s house, building, or car

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

23. Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun)

[ ] 0 Not at all

[ ] 1 Just a little

[ ] 2 Pretty much

[ ] 3 Very much

Scoring

There are two scoring approaches that can be used. The first relies on counting symptoms for each disorder using the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale and the second employs the use of average scale scores. Within each of these approaches, one has the option of using either the continuous/count score that is created, or of creating a diagnostic (0/1) assessment, depending on research needs. A continuous score provides more variance for predictive capacity; a diagnostic may have more clinical significance. Diagnosis using the scale score method involves comparing the target child’s scale scores on the DBD Rating Scale to established norms. The scale score method is preferable for diagnosis of females (e.g., using a 2 standard deviation cutoff), as the symptom counting method often results in underdiagnosis of female children.

Method 1: Counting Symptoms

To determine if a child meets the symptom criteria for DSM-IV [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition] or DSM-5 diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder [ODD] or Conduct Disorder as measured by the DBD Parent/Teacher Rating Scale, count the number of symptoms that are endorsed "pretty much" or "very much" by either parent or teacher in each of the following categories: Note that impairment and other criteria must be evaluated in addition to symptom counts.

Some impairment from the symptoms must be present in two or more settings (e.g., school, home).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

_________Oppositional Defiant Disorder (items 2, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19)

A total of 4 or more items must be endorsed as "pretty much" or "very much" on either the parent or the teacher DBD to meet criteria for ODD.

Conduct Disorder

__________Conduct Disorder - aggression to people and animals (items 4, 11, 15, 16, 17, 23)

__________Conduct Disorder - destruction of property (items 9, 21)

__________Conduct Disorder - deceitfulness or theft (items 3, 5, 22)

__________Conduct Disorder - serious violation of rules (items 1, 6, 18)

For a Continuous/Count Measure

Add up the number of symptoms across all disorders to obtain the externalizing symptom count score.

For a Diagnostic Measure

A total of 3 or more items in any category or any combination of categories must be endorsed as "pretty much" or "very much" on either the parent or the teacher DBD to meet diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder.

Method 2: Using Scale Scores

Scale scores for the ODD dimensions for teacher ratings on the DBD are reported in Pelham, W. E., Jr., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210-218. The scores for DSM-IV scales are the same as for the DSM-III-R scales reported in that paper.

For a Continuous/Count Measure

To create a continuous measure of externalizing behavior, compute the average rating for the items for the externalizing scale (listed below) using the following scoring: Not at all = 0, Just a little = 1, Pretty Much = 2, Very much = 3.

Scale

_________Oppositional/Defiant (items 2, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19)

For a Diagnostic Measure

To determine a diagnostic measure based on how a child’s scores compare to normative data, compute the average rating for the items for the externalizing scale as above. Then, using the information from the table of norms in Pelham et al. (1992), determine where the child falls in relation to other children. A variety of cutoff scores can be used (e.g., 2 standard deviations above the mean).

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

The Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBDRS) includes items on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ADHD-related items have been excluded from this protocol. Please refer to the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms measures in the Psychiatric domain in the Toolkit.

Externalizing Behaviors in older adolescents and adults can be measured using the Crime and Delinquency protocols in the Psychosocial Domain.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the participant’s disruptive behaviors (one aspect of the externalizing spectrum).

Purpose

Childhood disruptive behavior is a risk factor for adult crime, violence, and substance abuse.

Selection Rationale

The Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale is a well-established protocol with good psychometric properties that is based on diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5).

Language

English, Spanish

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Psychosocial Disruptive Behavior Disorders Questionnaire Assessment Score3371900CDE Browser

Process and Review

The [link[phenx.org/node/101|Expert Review Panel #3]] (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive ([link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=resources.archive|link]])

Source

Center for Children and Families. (N.d.). Parent/Teacher Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale. Miami, FL: Florida International University.

General References

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Defiant children: A clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.

Molina, B., & Pelham, W. (2003). Childhood predictors of adolescent substance use in a longitudinal study of children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 497-507.

Molina, B., Pelham, W., Gnagy, E., Thompson, A., & Marshal, M. (2007). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder is age-specific. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 643-654.

Molina, B., Smith, B., & Pelham, W. (2001). Factor structure and criterion validity of secondary school teacher ratings of ADHD and ODD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 71-82.

Oldehinkel, A., & Hartman, C., (2004). Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 421-440.

Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher rating of DSM-III-R symptoms for disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(2), 210-218.

Pelletier, J., Collett, B., Gimpel, G., & Crowley, S. (2006). Assessment of disruptive behaviors in preschoolers: Psychometric properties of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale and School Situations Questionnaire. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 24(1), 3-18.

Protocol ID:

540201

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540201_Run_Away_From_Home_OvernightPX540201010000Has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period)4N/A
PX540201_Often_Argues_With_AdultsPX540201020000Often argues with adults4N/A
PX540201_Often_LiesPX540201030000Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., "cons" others)4N/A
PX540201_Physically_Cruel_To_PeoplePX540201040000Has been physically cruel to people4N/A
PX540201_Stolen_Items_Without_Confronting_VictimPX540201050000Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)4N/A
PX540201_Often_Truant_From_SchoolPX540201060000Often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years4N/A
PX540201_Often_Spiteful_Or_VindictivePX540201070000Is often spiteful or vindictive4N/A
PX540201_Blames_Others_For_MistakesPX540201080000Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior4N/A
PX540201_Deliberately_Destroyed_PropertyPX540201090000Has deliberately destroyed others' property (other than by fire setting)4N/A
PX540201_Defies_Adults_Requests_RulesPX540201100000Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules4N/A
PX540201_Initiates_Physical_FightsPX540201110000Often initiates physical fights with others who do not live in his or her household (e.g., peers at school or in the neighborhood)4N/A
PX540201_Often_Angry_And_ResentfulPX540201120000Is often angry and resentful4N/A
PX540201_Touchy_Or_Annoyed_By_OthersPX540201130000Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others4Variable Mapping
PX540201_Often_Loses_TemperPX540201140000Often loses temper4N/A
PX540201_Forced_Someone_Into_Sexual_ActivityPX540201150000Has forced someone into sexual activity4N/A
PX540201_Often_Bullies_Threatens_Or_IntimidatesPX540201160000Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others4N/A
PX540201_Physically_Cruel_To_AnimalsPX540201170000Has been physically cruel to animals4N/A
PX540201_Stays_Out_At_NightPX540201180000Often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years4N/A
PX540201_Often_Deliberately_Annoys_PeoplePX540201190000Often deliberately annoys people4Variable Mapping
PX540201_Stolen_Confronting_VictimPX540201200000Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery)4N/A
PX540201_Engaged_In_Fire_SettingPX540201210000Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage4N/A
PX540201_Broken_Into_House_Building_CarPX540201220000Has broken into someone else's house, building, or car4N/A
PX540201_Used_WeaponPX540201230000Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun)4N/A