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Protocol - Community Risk and Protective Factors

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Protocol Name from Source:

Communities That Care Youth Survey

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The protocol includes 33 self-administered questions from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/). The protocol includes eight subscales: Low Neighborhood Attachment (three items on a 4-point scale), Community Disorganization (five items on a 4-point scale), Transitions and Mobility (four items on a 5-point scale), Perceived Availability of Handguns (one item on a 4-point scale), Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (five items on a 4-point scale), Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (three items on a 4-point scale), Perceived Availability of Drugs (four items on a 4-point scale), and Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use (seven items on a 4-point scale).

Protocol:

Communities That Care 2010 Youth Survey

1. This is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers; we would like you to work quickly, so that you can finish.

2. All of the questions should be answered by marking one of the answer spaces. If you don’t find an answer that fits exactly, use one that comes closest. If any question does not apply to you, or you are not sure what it means, just leave it blank.

3. Your answers will be read automatically by a computer. Please follow the instructions carefully.

  • Use only a blue or black pencil.
  • Make heavy marks inside the circles.
  • Erase cleanly or mark a big "X" over any answer you wish to change.
  • Make no other markings or comments on the answer pages, since they interfere with the automatic reading. (If you want to add a comment about any questions, please use the space provided on page 12.)

4. Some of the questions have the following format:

Please mark in the circle which of the four words best describes how you feel about that sentence.

EXAMPLE: The Seattle Storm is a good basketball team.

[ ] YES!

[ ] yes

[ ] no

[ ] NO!

Mark (the BIG) YES! if you think the statement is definitely true for you.

Mark (the little) yes if you think the statement is mostly true for you.

Mark (the little) no if you think the statement is mostly not true for you.

Mark (the BIG) NO! if you think the statement is definitely not true for you.

These questions ask about the neighborhood and community where you live.

1. If you wanted to get some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin), how easy would it be for you to get some? (82)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

2. If you wanted to get some cigarettes, how easy would it be for you to get some? (83)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

3. If a kid smoked marijuana in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? (84)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

4. If you wanted to get a drug like cocaine, LSD, or amphetamines, how easy would it be for you to get some? (85)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

5. If a kid drank some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? (86)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

6. If you wanted to get a handgun, how easy would it be for you to get one? (87)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

7. If a kid carried a handgun in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? (88)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

8. If you wanted to get some marijuana, how easy would it be for you to get some? (89)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

9. If a kid smoked a cigarette in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? (90)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

10. How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: (91)

a. to use marijuana?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

b. to drink alcohol?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

c. to smoke cigarettes?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

11. If I had to move, I would miss the neighborhood I now live in. (94)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

12. My neighbors notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. (95)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

13. I like my neighborhood.(96)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

14. There are lots of adults in my neighborhood I could talk to about something important. (97)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

15. How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? (98)

a. Crime and/or drug selling

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

b. Fights

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

c. Lots of empty or abandoned buildings

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

d. Lots of graffiti

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

16. How many times have you changed homes since kindergarten? (99)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] One or two times

3 [ ] Three or four times

4 [ ] Five or six times

5 [ ] Seven or more times

17. There are people in my neighborhood who are proud of me when I do something well. (100)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

18. Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? (101)

a. Sports teams

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

b. Scouting

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

c. Boys and girls clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

d. 4-H clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

e. Service clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

19. Have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) in the past year? (102)

1 [ ] No

3 [ ] Yes

20. I feel safe in my neighborhood. (103)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

21. How many times have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) since kindergarten? (104)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] One or two times

3 [ ] Three or four times

4 [ ] Five or six times

5 [ ] Seven or more times

22. I’d like to get out of my neighborhood. (105)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

23. Have you changed homes in the past year? (106)

1 [ ] No

3 [ ] Yes

24. There are people in my neighborhood who encourage me to do my best. (107)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

Scoring

Subscale

Reliability

Range

Scoring

Perceived Availability of Drugs

.88

1-4

Average items 1, 2, 8, 4

Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use

.82

1-4

Average items 3, 5, 7, 9, 10a, 10b, 10c

Low Neighborhood Attachment

.81

1-4

Average items 11, 13, 22

Neighborhood Rewards for Prosocial Involvement

.91

1-4

Average items 12, 17, 24

Neighborhood Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement

.80

1-4

Average items: 14, 18a, 18b, 18c, 18d, 18e

Community Disorganization

.83

1-4

Average items 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 20

Transitions and Mobility (alpha: N/A)

n/a

1-5

Average items 16, 19, 21, 23

Comparison with the CTC Normative Database.

Note: To obtain scores on the same metric as the CTC normative database, subtract 1 (from either each item, or from the means).

General Summary Scales

Scoring: averages of the above subscales

General Neighborhood Risk

.80

1-5

1) Reverse: Opportunities, Rewards, Attachment

2) Average: Opportunities-R, Rewards-R, Attachment-R, Disorganization, Transitions

Neighborhood Drug Risk

.88

1-4

Average: Laws and Norms & Perceived Availability

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

Items below constitute the Community Subscales from the CTC [Communities That Care] 2010 Youth Survey. Item numbers at the end in parentheses reflect the original item numbers in that survey for comparison. See the full CTC Survey in the reference list for comparison.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes and they should not be included in the administered survey.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This self-administered questionnaire assesses adolescents’ reports about the level and prevalence of exposure to substance use risk and protective factors in the community.

Purpose

This measure can be used to identify the specific community-related risk and protective factors that can predict adolescent (and later life) substance use and abuse.

Selection Rationale

The Communities That Care Youth Survey is in the public domain and is available at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website. The survey reliably predicts current and prospective substance use-related problem behaviors among adolescents as well as prospective substance abuse and dependence in adulthood. SAMHSA’s database of 300,000 youths from around the country enables investigators to derive normative distributions for comparison to newly collected data.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Available in other languages

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Substance use Community Risk Factor Questionnaire Assessment Score3371895CDE Browser

Process and Review

The [link[phenx.org/node/101|Expert Review Panel #3]] (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive ([link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=resources.archive|link]])

Source

Arthur, M. W., Briney, J. S., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., Brooke-Weiss, B. L., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Measuring risk and protection in communities using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(2), 197-211.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Communities That Care (CTC) Youth Survey. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Communities-That-Care-Youth-Survey/CTC020

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Communities That Care Normative Database (CTC NDB). Retrieved November 3, 2015, from https://www.pmrts.samhsa.gov/pmrts/CommunitiesCares.aspx

General References

http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/research-results/

Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Meacham, M. C., Young, S. E., & Hawkins, J. D. (2011). Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: General and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co‐occurring problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3), 444-451.

Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross‐national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(1), 3-16.

Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630-637.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance‐abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Guo, J., & Battin, S. R. (1998, June). Common predictors of substance abuse, mental health and behavior disorders: Implications for prevention. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science, NIH Workshop on Prevention of Comorbidity, Bethesda, MD.

Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in the United States and Australia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 312-320.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86-105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.); Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for prevention intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Protocol ID:

540101

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540101_Get_Beer_Wine_LiquorPX540101010000If you wanted to get some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin), how easy would it be for you to get some?4N/A
PX540101_Get_CigarettesPX540101020000If you wanted to get some cigarettes, how easy would it be for you to get some?4N/A
PX540101_Kid_Smoked_Marijuana_Get_CaughtPX540101030000If a kid smoked marijuana in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police?4N/A
PX540101_Get_Cocaine_Lsd_AmphetaminesPX540101040000If you wanted to get a drug like cocaine, LSD, or amphetamines, how easy would it be for you to get some?4N/A
PX540101_Kid_Drank_Get_CaughtPX540101050000If a kid drank some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police?4N/A
PX540101_Get_HandgunPX540101060000If you wanted to get a handgun, how easy would it be for you to get one?4N/A
PX540101_Kid_Carried_Handgun_Get_CaughtPX540101070000If a kid carried a handgun in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police?4N/A
PX540101_Marijuana_How_Easy_For_YouPX540101080000If you wanted to get some marijuana, how easy would it be for you to get some?4N/A
PX540101_Kid_Smoked_Cigarette_Get_CaughtPX540101090000If a kid smoked a cigarette in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police?4N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_MarijuanaPX540101100100How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to use marijuana?4N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_AlcoholPX540101100200How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to drink alcohol?4N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_CigarettesPX540101100300How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to smoke cigarettes?4N/A
PX540101_Would_Miss_The_NeighborhoodPX540101110000If I had to move, I would miss the neighborhood I now live in.4N/A
PX540101_Neighbors_Notice_Good_JobPX540101120000My neighbors notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it.4N/A
PX540101_Like_My_NeighborhoodPX540101130000I like my neighborhood.4N/A
PX540101_Talk_To_Adults_In_NeighborhoodPX540101140000There are lots of adults in my neighborhood I could talk to about something important.4N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_CrimePX540101150100How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Crime and/or drug selling4N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_FightsPX540101150200How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Fights4N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_Abandoned_BuildingsPX540101150300How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Lots of empty or abandoned buildings4N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_GraffitiPX540101150400How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Lots of graffiti4N/A
PX540101_Times_Changed_Homes_Since_KindergartenPX540101160000How many times have you changed homes since kindergarten?4N/A
PX540101_People_In_Neighborhood_ProudPX540101170000There are people in my neighborhood who are proud of me when I do something well.4N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_Sports_TeamsPX540101180100Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Sports teams4N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_ScoutingPX540101180200Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Scouting4N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_BoysGirls_ClubsPX540101180300Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Boys and girls clubs4N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_4h_ClubsPX540101180400Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? 4-H clubs4N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_Service_ClubsPX540101180500Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Service Clubs4N/A
PX540101_Changed_Schools_In_Past_YearPX540101190000Have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) in the past year?4N/A
PX540101_Feel_Safe_In_NeighborhoodPX540101200000I feel safe in my neighborhood.4N/A
PX540101_Changed_Schools_Since_KindergartenPX540101210000How many times have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) since kindergarten?4N/A
PX540101_Like_Get_Out_Of_NeighborhoodPX540101220000I'd like to get out of my neighborhood.4N/A
PX540101_Changed_Homes_In_Past_YearPX540101230000Have you changed homes in the past year?4N/A
PX540101_People_In_Neighborhood_Who_EncouragePX540101240000There are people in my neighborhood who encourage me to do my best.4N/A