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Protocol - Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances - Specific - Alcohol

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Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) consists of 20 questions about the respondent's reasons for drinking alcohol, falling into one of four categories for social, coping, enhancement, and conformity motives. The respondent is asked to respond to each question via a five-item scale ranging from 1 for "almost never/never" to 5 for "almost always/always."

Protocol:

Here is a list of reasons people give for drinking alcohol. Thinking of all the times you drink, how often would you say that you drink for each of the following reasons?

There are no right or wrong answers to these questions.

If you no longer use alcohol, please answer for when you used to drink.

1. To forget your worries

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

2. Because your friends pressure you to drink

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

3. Because it helps you enjoy a party

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

4. Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

5. To be sociable

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

6. To cheer up when you are in a bad mood

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

7. Because you like the feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

8. So that others won't kid you about not drinking

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

9. Because it's exciting

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

10. To get high

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

11. Because it makes social gatherings more fun

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

12. To fit in with a group you like

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

13. Because it gives you a pleasant feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

14. Because it improves parties and celebrations

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

15. Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

16. To celebrate a special occasion with friends

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

17. To forget about your problems

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

18. Because it's fun

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

19. To be liked

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

20. So you won't feel left out

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

Scoring Procedure and Interpretation

DMQ-R subscale

Scoring procedure

Social Motives

Mean of items 3, 5, 11, 14, and 16

Coping Motives

Mean of items 1, 4, 6, 15, and 17

Enhancement Motives

Mean of items 7, 9, 10, 13, and 18

Conformity Motives

Mean of items 2, 8, 12, 19, and 20

Total Score

Sum of means for the four subscales

The scoring scheme reflects factors identified in the original publication. Factor structure may differ in individual studies.

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don't know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult, Senior

Specific Instructions:

The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The full version of the DMQ-R in this follow-up protocol can be used to obtain detailed information on alcohol. Note that the coping and enhancement subscales are repeated from the core DMQ-R items. The coping, enhancement, and social subscales could be used with adolescent or adult populations, but the conformity subscale is only recommended for adolescents because endorsement of peer pressure items declines with age (Cooper 1994).

These questions are only asked if a respondent had affirmatively answered one of the alcohol category questions in the "Alcohol - Lifetime Use" measure.

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances and/or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual's employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of NIH: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

February 24, 2012

Definition

Instruments used separately to assess the motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to assess motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs, by asking the respondent questions about his/her thoughts and motivations for such actions.The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two DMQ-R subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The follow-up protocols (including the full version of the DMQ-R) can then be used to obtain detailed information on a single substance.

Selection Rationale

The Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) is a well-validated and widely used instrument in both clinical and research settings. The instrument was used initially as an interview in a study of adolescents (Cooper 1994), but it has since been validated in adult populations.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Alcohol Revised Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R) Assessment Score3332520CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 117–128.

General References

Comeau, N., Stewart, S. H., & Loba, P. (2001). The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and sensation seeking to adolescents' motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 26(6), 803-825.

Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., & Windle, M. (1992). Development and validation of a three-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 123–132.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2005). Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7), 841–861.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2006). Replication and validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R, Cooper, 1994) among adolescents in Switzerland. European Addiction Research, 12, 161-168.

Kuntsche, E., Steward, S. H., & Cooper, M. L. (2008). How stable is the motive-alcohol use link? A cross-national validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised among adolescents from Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(3), 388-396.

Stewart, S. H., Zeitlin, S. B., & Samoluk, S. B. (1996). Examination of a three-dimensional drinking motives questionnaire in a young adult university student sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(1), 61-71.

Protocol ID:

520502

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX520502_Drink_To_Forget_Your_WorriesPX520502010000To forget your worries4N/A
PX520502_Friends_Pressure_You_To_DrinkPX520502020000Because your friends pressure you to drink4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Helps_Enjoy_PartyPX520502030000Because it helps you enjoy a party4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Helps_When_DepressedPX520502040000Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Be_SociablePX520502050000To be sociable4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Cheer_UpPX520502060000To cheer up when you are in a bad mood4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Because_Like_The_FeelingPX520502070000Because you like the feeling4N/A
PX520502_Drink_So_Others_Wont_KidPX520502080000So that others won¿¿¿t kid you about not drinking4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Because_Its_ExcitingPX520502090000Because it¿¿¿s exciting4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Get_HighPX520502100000To get high4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Makes_Gatherings_More_FunPX520502110000Because it makes social gatherings more fun4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Fit_InPX520502120000To fit in with a group you like4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Gives_Pleasant_FeelingPX520502130000Because it gives you a pleasant feeling4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Improves_PartiesPX520502140000Because it improves parties and celebrations4N/A
PX520502_Drink_More_SelfconfidentPX520502150000Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Celebrate_Special_OccasionPX520502160000To celebrate a special occasion with friends4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_ForgetPX520502170000To forget about your problems4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Because_Its_FunPX520502180000Because it¿¿¿s fun4N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Be_LikedPX520502190000To be liked4N/A
PX520502_Drink_Wont_Feel_Left_OutPX520502200000So you won¿¿¿t feel left out4N/A