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Protocol - Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)

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Protocol Name from Source:

NA, see source

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The individual is asked a series of questions about eight basic activities of daily living (e.g., bathing). The two-part questions ask whether the respondent needed help from another person to perform the activity and whether the respondent had any difficulty with the activity (whether the respondent received help).

Protocol:

Instruction To Assessor:

Be sure to ask this set of questions early in the Baseline Interview.

Instruction To Participant:

The purpose of this next set of questions is to find out about your everyday activities at home. I'm going to ask you whether anyone has helped you with these tasks. I'm asking about family members, friends, and home care workers. Let's discuss the following daily activities for the period during the last month.

1a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to bathe (wash and dry your whole body)?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 2a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 2a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

1b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty with bathing?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

2a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to do your grooming, like brushing your hair, brushing your teeth, or washing your face?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 3a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 3a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

2b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty with your personal grooming?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

3a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to dress your upper body (i.e., above your waist), like putting on or buttoning a shirt (or blouse)?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 4a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 4a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

3b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty dressing your upper body?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

4a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to dress your lower body (i.e., below your waist), like putting on or buttoning your pants (or skirt) or putting on or tying your shoes?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 5a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 5a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

4b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty dressing your lower body?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

5a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to feed yourself, like holding a fork, cutting food, or drinking from a glass?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 6a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 6a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

5b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty with feeding yourself?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

6a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to use the toilet, including getting on and off the toilet?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 7a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 7a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

6b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty with using the toilet?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

7a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to walk around inside your home?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help - GO TO 8a

[ ] 3 Unable to do - GO TO 8a

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

7b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty with walking around inside your home?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

8a. Within the last month, did you need help from another person to get in and out of a chair?

[ ] 1 No help

[ ] 2 Help

[ ] 3 Unable to do

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

8b. Within the last month, have you had difficulty getting in and out of a chair?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

[ ] 7 REF

[ ] 8 DK

[ ] 9 NA

Scoring

For each of the 8 activities.

  • No help, no difficulty: score 0
  • No help, yes difficulty: score 1
  • Help (regardless of difficulty): score 2

Sum the total.

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don't know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

The PhenX Working Group acknowledges these questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer/handheld computer to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Life Stage:

Senior

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

July 2, 2018

Definition

An assessment of how well an individual can perform essential daily activities.

Purpose

This scale is used to assess an older person's ability to perform normal daily activities. The results may lead to interventions that can prevent physical decline or injury.

Selection Rationale

The ADL scale by Gill et al., 2002, is a commonly used instrument to asses an older adult's physical ability to perform essential activities at home.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel has yet to review this measure.

Source

Gill, T. M., Baker, D. I., Gottschalk, M., Peduzzi, P. N., Allore, H., & Byers, A. (2002). A program to prevent functional decline in physically frail, elderly persons who live at home. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(14), 1068-1074.

General References

Gill, T. M., Gahbauer, E. A., Allore, H. G., & Han, L. (2006). Transitions between frailty states among community-living older persons. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(4), 418-423.

Protocol ID:

250101

Variables:

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