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Protocol - Dietary Restraint

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This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-18) is an 18-item, self-administered questionnaire with Likert-style questions.

Protocol:

1. When I smell a sizzling steak or juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

2. I deliberately take small helpings as a means of controlling my weight.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

3. When I feel anxious, I find myself eating.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

4. Sometimes when I start eating, I just can’t seem to stop.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

5. Being with someone who is eating often makes me hungry enough to eat also.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

6. When I feel blue, I often overeat.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

7. When I see a real delicacy, I often get so hungry that I have to eat right away.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

8. I get so hungry that my stomach often seems like a bottomless pit.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

9. I am always hungry so it is hard for me to stop eating before I finish the food on my plate.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

10. When I feel lonely, I console myself by eating.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

11. I consciously hold back at meals in order not to weight gain.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

12. I do not eat some foods because they make me fat.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

13. I am always hungry enough to eat at any time.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

14. How often do you feel hungry?

[ ] Only at meal times (1)

[ ] sometimes between meals (2)

[ ] often between meals (3)

[ ] almost always (4)

15. How frequently do you avoid "stocking up" on tempting foods?

[ ] Almost never (1)

[ ] seldom (2)

[ ] usually (3)

[ ] almost always (4)

16. How likely are you to consciously eat less than you want?

[ ] Unlikely (1)

[ ] slightly likely (2)

[ ] moderately likely (3)

[ ] very likely (4)

17. Do you go on eating binges though you are not hungry?

[ ] Never (1)

[ ] rarely (2)

[ ] sometimes (3)

[ ] at least once a week (4)

18. On a scale of 1 to 8, where 1 means no restraint in eating (eating whatever you want, whenever you want it) and 8 means total restraint (constantly limiting food intake and never "giving in"), what number would you give yourself?

____________

Scoring:

The 1-2 scores were coded 1; 3-4 scores were coded 2; 5-6 scores were coded 3; 7-8 scores were coded 4. The cognitive restraint scale was composed of items 2, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 18. The uncontrolled eating scale was composed of items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, and 17. The emotional eating scale was composed of items 3, 6, and 10.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Individuals age 12 and older, Adolescent, Adult

Specific Instructions:

The Working Group recommends making the change to Question 1 that is described below, since steak and meat are not nearly as popular now as when the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was developed.

Angle et al. (2009) "modified item 1, "When I smell a sizzling steak or a juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal," into "When I smell a delicious food, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal." It was considered that this slight change would improve the ability of the statement to measure-in this population-what it was originally meant to measure: difficulty controlling eating when tempted by external stimuli, even when already full."

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

September 9, 2015

Definition

A self-administered questionnaire used to assess the cognitive and behavioral components of eating.

Purpose

Dietary restraint is used to describe both the ability to successfully limit intake and extreme reductions in intake often followed by overeating episodes

Selection Rationale

In observational studies, dieting is a robust predictor of weight change. Since diets may be focused on changing diet composition rather than caloric restriction, a measure of dietary intake is important. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) dietary restraint measure is validated, widely used, and free of charge.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Obesity Three Factor Eating Questionnaire Assessment Score4994151CDE Browser

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 - Questions 1-18

General References

Lauzon, B., Romon, M., Deschamps, V., Lafay, L., Borys, JM., Karlsson, J., Ducimetière, P., Charles, M., Fleubaix Laventie Ville Sante Study Group. (2004). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 Is Able to Distinguish among Different Eating Patterns in a General Population. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(9), 2372-2380.

Stunkard, A. J., & Messick, S. (1985). The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29(1), 71-83.

Anglé, S., Engblom, J., Eriksson, T., Kautiainen, S., Saha, M. T., Lindfors, P., Lehtinen, M., & Rimpelä, A. (2009). Three factor eating questionnaire-R18 as a measure of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of young Finnish females. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(6), 41.

Protocol ID:

230401

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_SmellSteak_Difficulty_NotEatingPX230401010000When I smell a sizzling steak or juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_Deliberately_SmallHelpings_ControlWeightPX230401020000I deliberately take small helpings as a means of controlling my weight.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelAnxious_FindMyselfEatingPX230401030000When I feel anxious, I find myself eating.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_StartEating_CantStopPX230401040000Sometimes when I start eating, I just can¿¿¿t seem to stop4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_BeingWithEater_MakesMeHungryPX230401050000Being with someone who is eating often makes me hungry enough to eat also.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelBlue_Often_OvereatPX230401060000When I feel blue, I often overeat.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_SeeDelicacy_SoHungry_MustEatPX230401070000When I see a real delicacy, I often get so hungry that I have to eat right away.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_Often_SoHungry_Stomach_BottomlessPitPX230401080000I get so hungry that my stomach often seems like a bottomless pit.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_AlwaysHungry_Hard_StopEating_BeforeFinishFoodPX230401090000I am always hungry so it is hard for me to stop eating before I finish the food on my plate.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelLonely_ConsoleMyself_ByEatingPX230401100000When I feel lonely, I console myself by eating.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HoldBack_AtMeals_WeightGainPX230401110000I consciously hold back at meals in order not to weight gain.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_DoNotEat_SomeFoods_MakeMeFatPX230401120000I do not eat some foods because they make me fat.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_AlwaysHungry_Enough_ToEatPX230401130000I am always hungry enough to eat at any time.4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowOften_HungryPX230401140000How often do you feel hungry?4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowFrequently_Avoid_Stocking_TemptingFoodsPX230401150000How frequently do you avoid ¿¿¿stocking up¿¿¿ on tempting foods?4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowLikely_Consicous_EatLess_ThanWantPX230401160000How likely are you to consciously eat less than you want?4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_EatingBinges_NotHungryPX230401170000Do you go on eating binges though you are not hungry?4N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_RatingPX230401180000On a scale of 1 to 8, where 1 means no restraint in eating (eating whatever you want, whenever you want it) and 8 means total restraint (constantly limiting food intake and never "giving in"), what number would you give yourself?4N/A