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Protocol - School Social Environment

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Protocol Name from Source:

NA

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The protocol includes 39 self-administered questions developed by Zullig et al. (2010). The items are scored with a five-point Likert scale, from strongly disagree to strongly agree, and include eight subscales: teacher relationships, school connectedness, academic support, order and discipline, school physical environment, school social environment, perceived exclusion/privilege, and academic satisfaction. The respondent reviews a list of items and chooses the answer that best relates to himself or herself.

Protocol:

Teacher Relationships

1. Teachers understand my problems

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

2. Teachers and staff seem to take a real interest in my future

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

3. Teachers are available when I need to talk with them

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

4. It is easy to talk with teachers

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

5. Students get along well with teachers

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

6. At my school, there is a teacher or some other adult who notices when I’m not there

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

7. Teachers at my school help us children with our problems

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

8. My teachers care about me

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

9. My teacher makes me feel good about myself

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Connectedness

10. My schoolwork is exciting

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

11. Students can make suggestions on courses that are offered

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

12. Students are publicly recognized for their outstanding performances in speech, drama, art, music, etc.

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

13. If this school had an extra period during the day, I would take an additional academic class

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

14. This school makes students enthusiastic about learning

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

15. Students are frequently rewarded or praised by faculty and staff for following school rules

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Academic Support

16. I usually understand my homework assignments

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

17. Teachers make it clear what work needs to be done to get the grade I want

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

18. I believe that teachers expect all students to learn

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

19. I feel that I can do well in this school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

20. My teachers believe that I can do well in my school work

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

21. I try hard to succeed in my classes

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Order and Discipline

22. Classroom rules are applied equally

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

23. Problems in this school are solved by students and staff

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

24. Students get in trouble if they do not follow school rules

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

25. The rules of the school are fair

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

26. School rules are enforced consistently and fairly

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

27. My teachers make it clear to me when I have misbehaved in class

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

28. Discipline is fair

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Physical Environment

29. The school grounds are kept clean

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

30. My school is neat and clean

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

31. My school buildings are generally pleasant and well maintained

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

32. My school is usually clean and tidy

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Social Environment

33. I am happy with kinds of students who go to my school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

34. I am happy, in general, with the other students who go to my school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Perceived Exclusion/Privilege

35. At my school, the same person always gets to help the teacher

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

36. At my school, the same kids get chosen every time to take part in after-school or special activities

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

37. The same kids always get to use things, like a computer, a ball or a piano, when we play

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Academic Satisfaction

38. I am happy about the number of tests I have

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

39. I am happy about the amount of homework I have

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Personnel and Training Required

No specific training is needed if data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer or handheld computer to administer or to allow the respondent to self-administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

May 31, 2016

Definition

This measure is a questionnaire to assess an adolescent respondent’s perceptions of the quality and character of his or her school social environment, which in educational literature most frequently is referenced as school climate.

Purpose

This measure can be used to evaluate the quality of a school’s social environment by collecting information on an adolescent’s self-perception of his or her school life experiences. School social environments that adversely affect the mental health of young people may externalize disorders. Hicks et al. (2009) found consistent patterns of gene-environment interplay between externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use) and several environmental risk factors, including academic achievement and engagement, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliations, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, and stressful life events. Except for parent relationship problems, these measured risk factors may be influenced markedly by exposure to unique school social environments (often referenced as school climate) every school day for up to 13 formative years, during which children and adolescents may be particularly susceptible.

Selection Rationale

The Zullig et al. (2010) scale was selected from among many available because it is a validated and reliable protocol that measures several traditional subcomponents of the more-comprehensive school social environment and that is easy and inexpensive to administer.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)School Social Environment Assessment Description Text3139351CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)School social environ proto63030-1LOINC

Process and Review

The [link[phenx.org/node/102|Expert Review Panel #2]] (ERP 2) reviewed the measures in the Demographics, Environmental Exposures, and Social Environments domains.

Guidance from ERP 2 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive ([link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.archive.protocols&id=210000|link]])

Source

Zullig, K. J., Collins, R., Ghani, N., Hunter, A. A., Patton, J.M., Huebner, E. S., Zhang, J. (2015). Preliminary development of a revised version of the School Climate Measure. Psychological Assessment, 27(3): 1072-1081.

Zullig, K. J., Collins, R., Ghani, N., Patton, J. M., Huebner, E. S., & Ajamie, J. (2014). Psychometric support of the School Climate Measure in a large, diverse sample of adolescents: A replication and extension. Journal of School Health, 84(2), 82-90.

Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Patton, J. M. (2011). Relationships among school climate domains and school satisfaction: further validation of the School Climate Measure. Psychology in the Schools, 48(2), 133-145.

Zullig, K., Koopman, T., Patton, J., & Ubbes, V. (2010). School climate: Historical review, instrument development, and school assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(2), 139-152.

General References

Hicks, B. M., South, S. C., DiRago, A. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2009). Environmental adversity and increasing genetic risk for externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 640-648.

Jacobson, K. C., & Rowe, D. C. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: Sex differences. Developmental Psychology, 35, 926-939.

McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health-risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74, 284-292.

Protocol ID:

211001

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX211001_Teacher_Understands_ProblemsPX211001010000Teachers understand my problems4N/A
PX211001_Teacher_Interested_In_FuturePX211001020000Teachers and staff seem to take a real interest in my future4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Available_To_TalkPX211001030000Teachers are available when I need to talk with them4N/A
PX211001_Easy_To_Talk_With_TeachersPX211001040000It is easy to talk with teachers4N/A
PX211001_Students_Get_Along_With_TeachersPX211001050000Students get along well with teachers4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Notice_TruancyPX211001060000At my school, there is a teacher or some other adult who notices when I'm not there4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Help_With_ProblemsPX211001070000Teachers at my school help us children with our problems4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_CarePX211001080000My teachers care about me4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Feel_GoodPX211001090000My teacher makes me feel good about myself4N/A
PX211001_Exciting_SchoolworkPX211001100000My schoolwork is exciting4N/A
PX211001_Students_Influence_Offered_CoursesPX211001110000Students can make suggestions on courses that are offered4N/A
PX211001_Students_Recognized_For_ArtsPX211001120000Students are publicly recognized for their outstanding performances in speech, drama, art, music, etc.4N/A
PX211001_Take_Additional_ClassesPX211001130000If this school had an extra period during the day, I would take an additional academic class4N/A
PX211001_Schools_Makes_Students_EnthusiasticPX211001140000This school makes students enthusiastic about learning4N/A
PX211001_Students_Recognized_For_Following_RulesPX211001150000Students are frequently rewarded or praised by faculty and staff for following school rules4N/A
PX211001_Understand_HomeworkPX211001160000I usually understand my homework assignments4N/A
PX211001_Clear_Expectations_For_GradesPX211001170000Teachers make it clear what work needs to be done to get the grade I want4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Expect_Students_To_LearnPX211001180000I believe that teachers expect all students to learn4N/A
PX211001_Do_Well_In_SchoolPX211001190000I feel that I can do well in this school4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Believe_In_Students_AbilitiesPX211001200000My teachers believe that I can do well in my school work4N/A
PX211001_Try_To_SucceedPX211001210000I try hard to succeed in my classes4N/A
PX211001_Classroom_Rules_Applied_EquallyPX211001220000Classroom rules are applied equally4N/A
PX211001_Problems_Solved_By_Staff_StudentsPX211001230000Problems in this school are solved by students and staff4N/A
PX211001_Students_Punished_Not_Following_RulesPX211001240000Students get in trouble if they do not follow school rules4N/A
PX211001_School_Rules_Are_FairPX211001250000The rules of the school are fair4N/A
PX211001_School_Rules_Enforced_Fairly_ConsistentlyPX211001260000School rules are enforced consistently and fairly4N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Call_Out_Class_MisbehaviorPX211001270000My teachers make it clear to me when I have misbehaved in class4N/A
PX211001_Discipline_Is_FairPX211001280000Discipline is fair4N/A
PX211001_School_Grounds_Kept_CleanPX211001290000The school grounds are kept clean4N/A
PX211001_School_Neat_CleanPX211001300000My school is neat and clean4N/A
PX211001_School_Buildings_Pleasant_MaintainedPX211001310000My school buildings are generally pleasant and well maintained4N/A
PX211001_School_Usually_Clean_TidyPX211001320000My school is usually clean and tidy4N/A
PX211001_Happy_With_Kinds_Of_SchoolmatesPX211001330000I am happy with kinds of students who go to my school4N/A
PX211001_Happy_With_Other_StudentsPX211001340000I am happy, in general, with the other students who go to my school4N/A
PX211001_Same_Person_Helps_TeacherPX211001350000At my school, the same person always gets to help the teacher4N/A
PX211001_Same_Kids_Chosen_Special_ActivitiesPX211001360000At my school, the same kids get chosen every time to take part in after-school or special activities4N/A
PX211001_Same_Kids_Use_ResourcesPX211001370000The same kids always get to use things, like a computer, a ball or a piano, when we play4N/A
PX211001_Happy_About_Number_TestsPX211001380000I am happy about the number of tests I have4N/A
PX211001_Happy_About_Amount_Of_HomeworkPX211001390000I am happy about the amount of homework I have4N/A