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Protocol - Exposures to Violence, Trauma, and Victimization - Child

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Protocol Name from Source:

Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH)

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The respondent is asked a comprehensive list of questions about trauma and victimization experiences over his/her lifetime. If the respondent answers "yes" to the first question, the interviewer administers additional follow-up questions about the event. Follow-up questions collect information about the person’s age, when the event occurred, whether serious injury or death was involved, if there was an intense feeling of fear and helplessness, the frequency of the event, and whether anyone else ever tried to harm the person in the same way. The questions are sensitive and cover subjects such as physical violence, sexual abuse, suicide, and murder.

Protocol:

LIFETIME TRAUMA AND VICTIMIZATION HISTORY (LTVH) INSTRUMENT- Child Version

Some people have had very scary and upsetting things happen to them at home, in their neighborhood, or someplace else. Other people have not had very scary things happen to them. I’m going to ask you about things that may or may not have happened to you. Please answer "Yes" if any of these things has happened to you or "No" if it has not happened to you.

1. Have you ever been involved in a natural disaster, like a tornado, a hurricane, a flood, or an earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 2)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time you were involved in a natural disaster, like a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

2. Have you ever been involved in a man-made disaster, like a fire, a train crash, a car accident, or a building falling down?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 3)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time you were involved in a man-made disaster, like a fire, a train crash, a car accident, or a building falling down?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

3. Have you ever fought in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 4)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time where you fought in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

4. Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For example, Iraq or Bosnia).

[IF R SAYS THEIR NEIGHBORHOOD IS LIKE A WAR ZONE, CHOOSE ’YES’]

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 5)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time that you lived in a war zone? (For example, Iraq or Bosnia).

[IF R SAYS THEIR NEIGHBORHOOD IS LIKE A WAR ZONE, CHOOSE ’YES’]

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

5. Have you ever had a serious accident at home, at school, or somewhere else?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 6)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time you had a serious accident at home, at school, or somewhere else?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

6. Have you ever been exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 7)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .....2

Was there another time you were exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

7. Has anyone ever shot at you, stabbed you, hit you, kicked you, beaten you, punched you, slapped you around, or hurt your body in some other way?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 8)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

_______

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever shot at you, stabbed you, hit you, kicked you, beaten you, punched you, slapped you around, or hurt your body in some other way?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

8. Has anyone ever threatened to hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock, or a bottle?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 9)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE:

____

Has anyone else ever threatened to hurt you with any kind of a weapon?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

9. Has anyone ever threatened to hurt you when they were standing right in front of you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 10)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever threatened to hurt you when they were standing right in front of you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

10. Has anyone ever actually hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock, or a bottle?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 11)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever actually hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock, or a bottle?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

11. Before you turned 12 years old (when you were in grade school), did anyone ever hit you, kick you, beat you, punch you, slap you around, or hurt your body in some other way?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 12)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Before you turned 12, did anyone else ever hit you, kick you, beat you, punch you, slap you around, or hurt your body in some other way?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

12. Before you turned 12 years old (when you were in grade school), were you ever physically abused?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 13)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Before you turned 12, did anyone else ever physically abuse you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

13. Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or pressured you into doing something sexual that you didn’t want to do? By "something sexual," we mean someone putting an object or part of their body inside your private sexual parts, inside your rear end, or inside your mouth; we also mean someone putting your private parts inside their mouth.

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 14)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced or pressured you into doing something sexual that you didn’t want to do?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

14. Other than what we just talked about, have there been any other times when anyone, male or female, ever tried to force or bully you into doing something sexual that you didn’t want to do, but it didn’t end up happening (for example, you stopped them or someone else stopped them)?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 15)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Was there any other time when anyone, male or female, tried to force or bully you into doing something sexual that you didn’t want to do, but it didn’t end up happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

15. Other than what we just talked about, have there been any other times when anyone actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs when you didn’t want to?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 16)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs when you didn’t want to?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

16. Have you ever known someone who was murdered; that is, a parent, a brother, a sister, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 17)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was anyone else murdered who was a parent, a brother, a sister, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

17. Have you ever seen or been present when someone was murdered or hurt very badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 18)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when someone was murdered or hurt very badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

18. Have you ever known someone who committed suicide or killed themselves; that is, a parent, a sister, a brother, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 19)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did anyone else who was a parent, a sister, a brother, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you commit suicide or kill themselves?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

19. Have you ever seen a dead body? Don’t include at a funeral, on TV, in the movies, or in a newspaper.

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 20)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there any other time when you saw a dead body?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

20. Have you ever seen or heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 21)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

21. Have you ever seen or heard another person be raped, sexually attacked, or made to do something sexual that they didn’t want to do?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 22)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or heard another person be raped, sexually attacked, or made to do something sexual that they didn’t want to do?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

22. Has anyone ever damaged or destroyed something on purpose that belonged to you or to someone who you lived with?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 23)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else damaged or destroyed something on purpose that belonged to you or to someone who you lived with?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

23. Has anyone ever stolen something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 24)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else ever stolen something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

24. Has anyone ever tried to steal something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you? This could be something like a stick-up, mugging, or carjacking. But they didn’t get anything because you or someone else stopped them?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 25)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to steal something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking, but they didn’t end up stealing something (for example, you stopped them or someone else stopped them)?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

25. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were not there?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 26)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were not there?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

26. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were there?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 27)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were there?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

27. Has anyone ever stolen something from you without your knowing it? This could be taking something from your pocket or backpack.

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 28)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Has anyone else ever stolen something directly from you without forcing you or threatening to hurt you?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

28. Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 29)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

How long were you held or not allowed to leave?

LENGTH OF TIME:

___________

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there any other time when you were kidnapped or held captive?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

29. Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For example, has anyone ever spied on you or followed you when you didn’t want them to?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 30)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Were you very scared?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person stalked you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else stalked you, spied on you, or followed you when you didn’t want them to?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

30. Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were afraid you might die or get really badly hurt, or when you were very scared or felt like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes... 1 SPECIFY:_____________

No.... 2

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Was there any other situation in which you were afraid you might die or get really badly hurt, or when you were very scared or felt like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Scoring:

There are several ways to score the instrument, from very simple to more complex. One can simply count the number of events that the person endorsed, the total number of events (that is, if the event happened more than once) or the number of items of different types (general traumas, items 1-6; physical violence, items 7-10; physical abuse, items 11-12; sexual violence, items 13-15; seen family/friend murdered or commit suicide, items 16-18; witnessed trauma to someone else, items 19-21; crime victimization, items 22-27; kidnapped or stalked, items 28-29; or anything else, item 30). One can count items that occurred during certain time periods in the person’s life (childhood, adolescence, or adulthood) or items that only reached a certain threshold of intensity, based on questions about the person’s perception of the event (i.e., Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?). For certain purposes where less detail is desired, one might omit these follow-up questions entirely.

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided. It is preferable to either read the questionnaire aloud to the respondent or administer it in an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) format.

The questions are sensitive in nature and the interviewer should be trained to react appropriately to emotional responses. If a distressed respondent protocol is adopted the interviewer should be trained to administer those procedures.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Specific Instructions:

Self-reported child physical abuse and sexual abuse may need to be reported to the authorities. Researchers should check their state regulations for these requirements prior to using the instrument in the field.

A distressed respondent protocol is recommended for all ages and particularly for youths under the age of 18. This protocol should be based on local emergency resources and approved by the investigator’s Institutional Review Board. Interviewers who administer the questionnaire should be trained on the protocol.

Recommendations for the Interviewer:

A "yes" or "no" response is all the information we are requesting from the respondent. We do not want to ask them details about what might have been a very painful experience.

The question "Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?" refers to the time of the incident only. For example, if they become distressed later as a result of the event, that is not what we are interested in.

The question " were you very scared?" refers to any time during the event or afterwards when they were thinking about the event.

Any "act of nature" can be included, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, volcanoes, etc.

"Have you ever seen a dead body " could refer to a situation where the respondent is with someone when they die. There are many hospice situations in which family members are present at the time of death. If the person reports this as a particularly stressful or upsetting event, then it must be included.

By "breaking in", we don’t mean breaking into a house because they forgot their key. We do want to include the type of event when someone breaks into the house when they are not living there or were kicked out.

The question which deals with "Has anyone ever threatened to hurt you when they were standing right in front of you" involves threat, but no weapon. This follows the different question about "threatened to hurt you with any kind of a weapon".

In the final open question, the person should state briefly or describe briefly the situation.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 28, 2017

Definition

This measure asks about the respondent’s history of violent, traumatic and victimization events.

Purpose

Traumatic and victimization events are major stressors that can adversely affect a child or adult’s physical and mental health. The type of event, age when it occurred, and frequency are important in assessing impact. If a person experiences more than one event or more than one type of event, the results may be cumulative.

Selection Rationale

The Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History (LTVH) instrument was developed to be brief, easy to administer, and easy for the respondent to comprehend the questions. The instrument captures information and frequencies of a wide range of traumatic experiences.

The instrument was validated by interviewing a case-control sample of neglected and physically/sexually abused children and comparing the results with official records and reports. Psychometric analysis of the physical abuse and sexual abuse responses yielded good discriminate validity. However, there was substantial underreporting for both types of abuse.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Child Violence Exposure Assessment Score3162929CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)Exposures to violence - child proto62945-1LOINC

Process and Review

[link[phenx.org/node/103|Expert Review Panel 4]] (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· Revised description of the measure

Source

Widom, C. S., Dutton, M. A., Czaja, S.J., & DuMont, K.A. (2005). Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 519-531.

General References

Foley, D. L., Eaves, L. J., Wormley, B., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., Kuhn, J., & Riley, B. (2004). Childhood adversity, monoamine oxidase A genotype, and risk for conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(7), 738-744.

Huizinga, D., Haberstick, B. C., Smolen, A., Menard, S., Young, S. E., Corley, R. P., Stallings, M. C., Grotpeter, J., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Childhood maltreatment, subsequent antisocial behavior, and the role of monoamine oxidase A genotype. Biological Psychiatry, 60(7), 677-683.

Kaufman, J., & Charney, D. (2001). Effects of early stress on brain structure and function: Implications for understanding the relationship between child maltreatment and depression. Developmental Psychopathology, 13, 451-471.

Saunders, B. E. (2003). Understanding children exposed to violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(4), 356-375.

Segman, R. H., Shefi, N., Goltser-Dubner, T., Friedman, N., Kaminski, N., & Shalev, A. Y. (2005). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles identify emergent post-traumatic stress disorder among trauma survivors. Molecular Psychiatry, 10(5), 500-513, 425.

Protocol ID:

181402

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX181402_Natural_DisasterPX181402010000Have you ever been involved in a natural disaster, like a tornado, a hurricane, a flood, or an earthquake?4N/A
PX181402_Natural_Disaster_AgePX181402010100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Natural_Disaster_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402010200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Natural_Disaster_ScaredPX181402010300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Natural_Disaster_Could_Not_StopPX181402010400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Natural_Disaster_Other_TimePX181402010500Was there another time you were involved in a natural disaster, like a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_DisasterPX181402020000Have you ever been involved in a man-made disaster, like a fire, a train crash, a car accident, or a building falling down?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_Disaster_AgePX181402020100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_Disaster_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402020200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_Disaster_ScaredPX181402020300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_Disaster_Could_Not_StopPX181402020400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Manmade_Disaster_Other_TimePX181402020500Was there another time you were involved in a man-made disaster, like a fire, a train crash, a car accident, or a building falling down?4N/A
PX181402_WarPX181402030000Have you ever fought in a war?4N/A
PX181402_War_AgePX181402030100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_War_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402030200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_War_ScaredPX181402030300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_War_Could_Not_StopPX181402030400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_War_Other_TimePX181402030500Was there another time where you fought in a war?4N/A
PX181402_WarZonePX181402040000Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For example, Iraq or Bosnia).4N/A
PX181402_WarZone_AgePX181402040100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_WarZone_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402040200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_WarZone_ScaredPX181402040300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_WarZone_Could_Not_StopPX181402040400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_WarZone_Other_TimePX181402040500Was there another time that you lived in a war zone? (For example, Iraq or Bosnia).4N/A
PX181402_Serious_AccidentPX181402050000Have you ever had a serious accident at home, at school, or somewhere else?4N/A
PX181402_Serious_Accident_AgePX181402050100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Serious_Accident_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402050200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Serious_Accident_ScaredPX181402050300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Serious_Accident_Could_Not_StopPX181402050400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Serious_Accident_Other_TimePX181402050500Was there another time you had a serious accident at home, at school, or somewhere else?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_RadiationPX181402060000Have you ever been exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_Radiation_AgePX181402060100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_Radiation_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402060200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_Radiation_ScaredPX181402060300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_Radiation_Could_Not_StopPX181402060400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Chemicals_Radiation_Other_TimePX181402060500Was there another time you were exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_StabbedPX181402070000Has anyone ever shot at you, stabbed you, hit you, kicked you, beaten you, punched you, slapped you around, or hurt your body in some other way?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_Age_First_HappenedPX181402070100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402070200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_ScaredPX181402070300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_Could_Not_StopPX181402070400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_TimesPX181402070500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_Age_Last_TimePX181402070600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Shot_Stabbed_Other_TimePX181402070700Has anyone else ever shot at you, stabbed you, hit you, kicked you, beaten you, punched you, slapped you around, or hurt your body in some other way?4N/A
PX181402_ThreatenedPX181402080000Has anyone ever threatened to hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock or a bottle?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_Age_First_HappenedPX181402080100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402080200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_ScaredPX181402080300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_Could_Not_StopPX181402080400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_TimesPX181402080500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402080600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_Other_TimesPX181402080700Has anyone else ever threatened to hurt you with any kind of a weapon?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOfPX181402090000Has anyone ever threatened to hurt you when they were standing right in front of you?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_Age_First_HappenedPX181402090100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402090200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_ScaredPX181402090300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_Could_Not_StopPX181402090400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_TimesPX181402090500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402090600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Threatened_StandingInFrontOf_Other_TimesPX181402090700Has anyone else ever threatened to hurt you when they were standing right in front of you?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeaponPX181402100000Has anyone ever actually hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock, or a bottle?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_Age_First_HappenedPX181402100100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402100200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_ScaredPX181402100300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402100400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_TimesPX181402100500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402100600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_HurtByWeapon_Other_TimesPX181402100700Has anyone else ever actually hurt you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, a gun, a baseball bat, a frying pan, scissors, a stick, a rock, or a bottle?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12PX181402110000Before you turned 12 years old (when you were in grade school), did anyone ever hit you, kick you, beat you, punch you, slap you around, or hurt your body in some other way?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_Age_FirstHappenedPX181402110100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_Afraid_MightDiePX181402110200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_ScaredPX181402110300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_NothingCouldDoPX181402110400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_TimesPX181402110500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_Age_LastHappenedPX181402110600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Hurt_Before12_Other_TimesPX181402110700Before you turned 12, did anyone else ever hit you, kick you, beat you, punch you, slap you around, or hurt your body in some other way?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12PX181402120000Before you turned 12 years old (when you were in grade school), were you ever physically abused?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_First_HappenedPX181402120100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402120200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_ScaredPX181402120300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402120400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_TimesPX181402120500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402120600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Other_TimesPX181402120700Before you turned 12, did anyone else ever physically abuse you?4N/A
PX181402_Something_SexualPX181402130000Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or pressured you into doing something sexual that you didn't want to do? By "something sexual," we mean someone putting an object or part of their body inside your private sexual parts, inside your rear end, or inside your mouth; we also mean someone putting your private parts inside their mouth.4N/A
PX181402_Dead_BodyPX181402190000Have you ever seen a dead body? Don't include at a funeral, on TV, in the movies, or in a newspaper.4N/A
PX181402_Dead_Body_Age_First_HappenedPX181402190100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Dead_Body_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402190200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Dead_Body_ScaredPX181402190300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Dead_Body_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402190400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Dead_Body_Other_TimesPX181402190500Was there any other time when you saw a dead body?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_ThreatsPX181402200000Have you ever seen or heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Threats_Age_First_HappenedPX181402200100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Threats_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402200200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Threats_ScaredPX181402200300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Threats_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402200400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Threats_Other_TimesPX181402200500Was there any other time when you saw or heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttackPX181402210000Have you ever seen or heard another person be raped, sexually attacked, or made to do something sexual that they didn't want to do?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Age_First_HappenedPX181402210100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402210200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttack_ScaredPX181402210300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402210400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Other_TimesPX181402210500Was there any other time when you saw or heard another person be raped, sexually attacked, or made to do something sexual that they didn't want to do?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_PropertyPX181402220000Has anyone ever damaged or destroyed something on purpose that belonged to you or to someone who you lived with?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_Property_Age_First_HappenedPX181402220100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_Property_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402220200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_Property_ScaredPX181402220300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_Property_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402220400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Destroyed_Property_Other_TimesPX181402220500Has anyone else damaged or destroyed something on purpose that belonged to you or to someone who you lived with?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_PropertyPX181402230000Has anyone ever stolen something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Property_Age_First_HappenedPX181402230100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Property_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402230200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Property_ScaredPX181402230300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Property_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402230400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Property_Other_TimesPX181402230500Has anyone else ever stolen something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_To_StealPX181402240000Has anyone ever tried to steal something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you? This could be something like a stick-up, mugging, or carjacking. But they didn't get anything because you or someone else stopped them?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_ToSteal_Age_First_HappenedPX181402240100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_ToSteal_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402240200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_ToSteal_ScaredPX181402240300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_ToSteal_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402240400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Tried_ToSteal_Other_TimesPX181402240500Has anyone else ever tried to steal something from you by using force or threatening to hurt you, like in a stick-up, a mugging, or a car-jacking, but they didn't end up stealing something (for example, you stopped them or someone else stopped them)?4N/A
PX181402_Break_InPX181402250000Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were not there?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_Age_First_HappenedPX181402250100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402250200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_ScaredPX181402250300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402250400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_Other_TimesPX181402250500Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were not there?4N/A
PX181402_Break_In_While_TherePX181402260000Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were there?4N/A
PX181402_BreakIn_WhileThere_Age_First_HappenedPX181402260100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_BreakIn_WhileThere_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402260200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_BreakIn_WhileThere_ScaredPX181402260300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_BreakIn_WhileThere_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402260400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_BreakIn_WhileThere_Other_TimesPX181402260500Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken into your house, garage, shed, locker or storage room when you were there?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_Without_KnowledgePX181402270000Has anyone ever stolen something from you without your knowing it? This could be taking something from your pocket or backpack.4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_WithoutKnowledge_Age_First_HappenedPX181402270100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_WithoutKnowledge_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402270200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_WithoutKnowledge_ScaredPX181402270300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_WithoutKnowledge_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402270400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Stolen_WithoutKnowledge_Other_TimesPX181402270500Has anyone else ever stolen something directly from you without forcing you or threatening to hurt you?4N/A
PX181402_KidnappedPX181402280000Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_Age_First_HappenedPX181402280100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_How_LongPX181402280200How long were you held or not allowed to leave?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402280300Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_ScaredPX181402280400Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402280500Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Kidnapped_Other_TimesPX181402280600Was there any other time when you were kidnapped or held captive?4N/A
PX181402_StalkedPX181402290000Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For example, has anyone ever spied on you or followed you when you didn't want them to?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_Age_First_HappenedPX181402290100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402290200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_ScaredPX181402290300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402290400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_TimesPX181402290500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402290600How old were you the last time this person stalked you?4N/A
PX181402_Stalked_Other_TimesPX181402290700Has anyone else stalked you, spied on you, or followed you when you didn't want them to?4N/A
PX181402_Other_SituationsPX181402300000Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were afraid you might die or get really badly hurt, or when you were very scared or felt like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Other_Situations_SpecifyPX181402300100Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were afraid you might die or get really badly hurt, or when you were very scared or felt like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening? SPECIFY4N/A
PX181402_Other_Situations_Age_First_HappenedPX181402300200How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Other_Situations2PX181402300300Was there any other situation in which you were afraid you might die or get really badly hurt, or when you were very scared or felt like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_Age_First_HappenedPX181402130100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402130200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_ScaredPX181402130300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402130400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_TimesPX181402130500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402130600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_Other_TimesPX181402130700Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced or pressured you into doing something sexual that you didn't want to do?4N/A
PX181402_Something_Sexual_StoppedPX181402140000Other than what we just talked about, have there been any other times when anyone, male or female, ever tried to force or bully you into doing something sexual that you didn't want to do, but it didn't end up happening (for example, you stopped them or someone else stopped them)?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_Age_First_HappenedPX181402140100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402140200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStoppedScaredPX181402140300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402140400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_TimesPX181402140500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402140600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_SomethingSexualStopped_Other_TimesPX181402140700Was there any other time when anyone, male or female, tried to force or bully you into doing something sexual that you didn't want to do, but it didn't end up happening?4N/A
PX181402_Private_PartsPX181402150000Other than what we just talked about, have there been any other times when anyone actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs when you didn't want to?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_Age_First_HappenedPX181402150100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402150200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_ScaredPX181402150300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402150400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_TimesPX181402150500How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_Age_Last_HappenedPX181402150600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181402_Private_Parts_Other_TimesPX181402150700Has anyone else ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs when you didn't want to?4N/A
PX181402_MurderedPX181402160000Have you ever known someone who was murdered; that is, a parent, a brother, a sister, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?4N/A
PX181402_Murdered_Age_First_HappenedPX181402160100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Murdered_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402160200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Murdered_ScaredPX181402160300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Murdered_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402160400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Murdered_Other_TimesPX181402160500Was anyone murdered who was a parent, a brother, a sister, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_MurderPX181402170000Have you ever seen or been present when someone was murdered or hurt very badly?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Murder_Age_First_HappenedPX181402170100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Murder_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402170200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Murder_ScaredPX181402170300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Murder_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402170400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Witnessed_Murder_Other_TimesPX181402170500Was there any other time when you saw or were present when someone was murdered or hurt very badly?4N/A
PX181402_SuicidePX181402180000Have you ever known someone who committed suicide or killed themselves; that is, a parent, a sister, a brother, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you?4N/A
PX181402_Suicide_Age_First_HappenedPX181402180100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181402_Suicide_Afraid_Might_DiePX181402180200Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?4N/A
PX181402_Suicide_ScaredPX181402180300Were you very scared?4N/A
PX181402_Suicide_Nothing_Could_DoPX181402180400Did you feel like there was nothing you could do to stop what was happening?4N/A
PX181402_Suicide_Other_TimesPX181402180500Did anyone else who was a parent, a sister, a brother, a very close friend, a boyfriend or girlfriend, or someone who lived with you commit suicide or kill themselves?4N/A