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Protocol - Exposures to Violence, Trauma, and Victimization - Adult

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Protocol Name from Source:

Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH)

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The respondent is asked a comprehensive list of questions about trauma and victimization experiences over his/her lifetime. If the respondent answers "yes" to the first question, the interviewer administers additional follow-up questions about the event. Follow-up questions collect information about the person’s age when the event occurred, whether serious injury or death was involved, if there was an intense feeling of fear and helplessness, the frequency of the event, and whether anyone else ever tried to harm the person in the same way. The questions are sensitive and cover subjects such as physical violence, sexual abuse, suicide, and murder.

Protocol:

LIFETIME TRAUMA AND VICTIMIZATION HISTORY (LTVH) INSTRUMENT - ADULT VERSION

The next questions are about serious events that may have happened to you during your lifetime.

1. Have you ever been involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 2)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious injury?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time you were involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

2. Have you ever been involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 3)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time where you were involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?

Yes... 1

No.....2

3. Have you ever been involved in direct combat experience in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 4)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time where you were involved in direct combat experience in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes.....1

No......2

4. Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For example, the Persian Gulf or Bosnia).

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 5)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time that you lived in a war zone?

Yes... 1

No.....2

5. Have you ever had a serious accident at work, at home, or somewhere else?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 6)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time when you had a serious accident at work, at home, or somewhere else?

Yes... 1

No.....2

6. Have you ever been exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 7)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time that you were exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

7. Have you ever been shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 8)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed you?

Yes... 1

No.....2

8. Have you ever been threatened with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 9)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else threatened you with any kind of weapon?

Yes... 1

No.....2

9. Has anyone ever threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 10)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?

Yes... 1

No….2

10. Have you ever been actually assaulted with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes..........1

No........... 2 (Go to 11)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

_______

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else actually assaulted you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes... 1

No….2

11. When you were a child--that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12--were you ever struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 12)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

During your childhood were you struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed by anyone else?

Yes... 1

No.....2

12. When you were a child- that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12-were you ever physically abused?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 13)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

During your childhood has anyone else physically abused you?

Yes... 1

No.....2

13. Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 14)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

14. Other than what we just talked about, did anyone, male or female, ever attempt to--but not actually-- force you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes.........1

No...........2 (Go to 15)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else--male or female, attempted to--but not actually--forced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

15. Other than what we just talked about, has anyone ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 16)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?

Yes..... 1

No.......2

16. Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend who was murdered?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 17)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend murdered?

Yes... 1

No.....2

17. Have you ever seen or been present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 18)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?

Yes... 1

No.....2

18. Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 19)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?

Yes... 1

No….2

19. Have you ever seen a dead or mutilated body? Other than at a funeral, in the movies or newspaper?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 20)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw a dead or mutilated body?

Yes... 1

No.....2

20. Have you ever seen or been present when another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 21)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.....2

21. Have you ever seen or been present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes..... 1

No...... 2 (Go to 22)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No….2

22. Has anyone ever intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 23)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?

Yes... 1

No.....2

23. Has anyone ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 24)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No…..2

24. Has anyone ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 25)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.....2

25. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 26)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there?

Yes... 1

No.....2

26. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 27)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?

Yes.....1

No......2

27. Has anyone ever stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force (for example purse-snatching or pick-pocket)?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 28)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force?

Yes.....1

No......2

28. Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 29)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

How long were you held or not allowed to leave?

LENGTH OF TIME:_____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you were kidnapped or held captive?

Yes... 1

No….2

29. Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For example, has anyone ever followed or spied on you?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 30)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How old were you the last time this person stalked you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else stalked you?

Yes... 1

No….2

30. Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1 SPECIFY: _____________

No.... 2

How old were you when it happened?

AGE: _____

Was there any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No….2

Scoring:

There are several ways to score the instrument, from very simple to more complex. One can simply count the number of events that the person endorsed, the total number of events (that is, if the event happened more than once), or the number of items of different types (general traumas, items 1-6; physical violence, items 7-10; physical abuse, items 11-12; sexual violence, items 13-15; seen family/friend murdered or commit suicide, items 16-18; witnessed trauma to someone else, items 19-21; crime victimization, items 22-27; kidnapped or stalked, items 28-29; or anything else, item 30). One can count items that occurred during certain time periods in the person’s life (childhood, adolescence, or adulthood) or items that only reached a certain threshold of intensity, based on questions about the person’s perception of the event (i.e., Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?). For certain purposes where less detail is desired, one might omit these follow-up questions entirely.

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided. It is preferable to either read the questionnaire aloud to the respondent or administer it in an audio-assisted computer interview (ACASI) format.

The questions are sensitive in nature and the interviewer should be trained to react appropriately to emotional responses. If a distressed respondent protocol is adopted the interviewer should be trained to administer those procedures.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior, Pregnancy

Specific Instructions:

The Psychosocial Working Group recommends that the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) instrument be used as a comprehensive assessment of an individual’s lifetime experiences to traumatic and victimization events. This instrument is used to capture information about a wide range of serious events (e.g., natural disasters, physical or sexual abuse, criminal assault, items stolen from you, accidents) that may have negative consequences (e.g., psychological distress, increased vulnerability). It is not a diagnostic tool for mental health conditions.

Adults who have experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, or another traumatic event may be very sensitive to these questions. The interviewer should respect the privacy of the respondent and administer the questions in a location where others cannot overhear the interview.

The External Review Panel notes that the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) can be used to establish exposure to categories of potentially traumatic events typically encountered by the general population. Like the [link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.protocoldetails&id=630101|Life Events Checklist (LEC)]], the potentially traumatic events in the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) can be examined in preparation for the Criterion A inquiry in Post-traumatic Stress Disorders diagnostic instruments such as the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; see [link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.protocoldetails&id=630401|PTSD Symptoms, Severity and Diagnosis]]). Additionally, the External Review Panel notes that Criterion A is no longer required for PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

Recommendations for the Interviewer:

A "yes" or "no" response is all the information we are requesting from the respondent. We do not want to ask them details about what might have been a very painful experience.

The question "were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?" refers to the time of the incident only. For example, if they become distressed later as a result of the event, that is not what we are interested in.

The question "did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?" refers to any time during the event or afterwards when they were thinking about the event.

Any "act of nature" can be included, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, volcanoes, etc.

"Seeing a dead body" could refer to a situation where the respondent is with someone when they die. There are many hospice situations in which family members are present at the time of death. If the person defines this as a particularly stressful or upsetting event, then it must be included.

By "breaking in", we don’t mean breaking into a house because they forgot their key. We do want to include the type of event when someone breaks into the house when they are not living there or were kicked out.

The question which deals with "threatened you in a face-to-face" involves threat, but no weapon. This follows the different question about "threatening you with a weapon".

In the final open question, the person should state briefly or describe briefly the situation.

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

November 28, 2017

Definition

This measure asks about the respondent’s history of violent, traumatic and victimization events.

Purpose

Traumatic and victimization events are major stressors that can adversely affect a child or adult’s physical and mental health. The type of event, age when it occurred, and frequency are important in assessing impact. If a person experiences more than one event or more than one type of event, the results may be cumulative.

Selection Rationale

The Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History (LTVH) instrument was developed to be brief, easy to administer, and easy for the respondent to comprehend the questions. The instrument captures information and frequencies of a wide range of traumatic experiences.

The instrument was validated by interviewing a case-control sample of neglected and physically/sexually abused children and comparing the results with official records and reports. Psychometric analysis of the physical abuse and sexual abuse responses yielded good discriminant validity. However, there was substantial underreporting for both types of abuse.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Adult Violence Exposure Assessment Score3162928CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)Exposures to violence - adult proto62944-4LOINC

Process and Review

[link[phenx.org/node/103|Expert Review Panel 4]] (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

  • Revised descriptions of measure

Source

Widom, C. S., Dutton, M. A., Czaja, S. J., & DuMont, K. A. (2005). Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 519-531.

General References

Goodman, L. A., Corcoran, C. B., Turner, K., Yuan, N., & Green, B. L. (1998). Assessing traumatic event exposure: General issues and preliminary findings for the stressful life events screening questionnaire. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(3), 521-542.

Green, B. (1996). Traumatic stress and disaster: Mental health factors influencing adaptation. Annual Review of Psychiatry. In F. L. Mak & C. C. Nadelson (Eds.), International Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 2, pp. 177-210). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 409-418.

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S.J., & Dutton, M. A. (2008). Childhood victimization and lifetime revictimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 785-796.

Protocol ID:

181401

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Age_FirstHappenedPX181401140100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Serious_InjuryPX181401140200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Intense_FearPX181401140300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_TimesPX181401140400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401140500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Other_TimesPX181401140600Has anyone else--male or female, attempted to--but not actually--forced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A
PX181401_Private_PartsPX181401150000Other than what we just talked about, has anyone ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Age_First_HappenedPX181401150100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Serious_InjuryPX181401150200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Intense_FearPX181401150300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_TimesPX181401150400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401150600How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Other_TimesPX181401150700Has anyone else ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_MurderedPX181401160000Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend who was murdered?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Age_First_HappenedPX181401160100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Serious_InjuryPX181401160200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Intense_FearPX181401160300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Other_TimesPX181401160400Was anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend murdered?4N/A
PX181401_Witness_MurderPX181401170000Have you ever seen or been present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?4N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Age_First_HappenedPX181401170100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Serious_InjuryPX181401170200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Intense_FearPX181401170300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Other_TimesPX181401170400Was there any other time when you saw or were present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_SuicidePX181401180000Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Age_First_HappenedPX181401180100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Serious_InjuryPX181401180200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Intense_FearPX181401180300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Other_TimesPX181401180400Did anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?4N/A
PX181401_Dead_BodyPX181401190000Have you ever seen a dead or mutilated body? Other than at a funeral, in the movies or newspaper?4N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Age_First_HappenedPX181401190100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Serious_InjuryPX181401190200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Intense_FearPX181401190300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Other_TimesPX181401190400Was there any other time when you saw a dead or mutilated body?4N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmedPX181401200000Have you ever seen or been present when another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?4N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Age_First_HappenedPX181401200100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Serious_InjuryPX181401200200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Intense_FearPX181401200300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Other_TimesPX181401200400Was there any other time when you saw or heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)?4N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttackPX181401210000Have you ever seen or been present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Age_First_HappenedPX181401210100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Serious_InjuryPX181401210200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Intense_FearPX181401210300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Other_TimesPX181401210400Was there any other time when you saw or were present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_PropertyPX181401220000Has anyone ever intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?4N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Age_First_HappenedPX181401220100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Serious_InjuryPX181401220200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Intense_FearPX181401220300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Other_TimesPX181401220400Has anyone else intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_PropertyPX181401230000Has anyone ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Age_First_HappenedPX181401230100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Serious_InjuryPX181401230200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Intense_FearPX181401230300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Other_TimesPX181401230400Has anyone else ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?4N/A
PX181401_Tried_To_StealPX181401240000Has anyone ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?4N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Age_First_HappenedPX181401240100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Serious_InjuryPX181401240200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Intense_FearPX181401240300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Other_TimesPX181401240400Has anyone else ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?4N/A
PX181401_Break_InPX181401250000Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there?4N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Age_First_HappenedPX181401250100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Serious_InjuryPX181401250200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Intense_FearPX181401250300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Other_TimesPX181401250400Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house when you were not there?4N/A
PX181401_Break_In_While_TherePX181401260000Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?4N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Age_First_HappenedPX181401260100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Serious_InjuryPX181401260200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Intense_FearPX181401260300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Other_TimesPX181401260400Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Without_ThreatPX181401270000Has anyone ever stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force (for example purse-snatching or pick-pocket)?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Age_First_HappenedPX181401270100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Intense_FearPX181401270200Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Other_TimesPX181401270300Has anyone else stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force?4N/A
PX181401_KidnappedPX181401280000Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive?4N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Age_First_HappenedPX181401280100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_How_LongPX181401280200How long were you held or not allowed to leave?4N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Serious_InjuryPX181401280300Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Intense_FearPX181401280400Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Other_TimesPX181401280500Was there any other time when you were kidnapped or held captive?4N/A
PX181401_StalkedPX181401290000Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For example, has anyone ever followed or spied on you?4N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Age_First_HappenedPX181401290100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Serious_InjuryPX181401290200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Intense_FearPX181401290300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401290400How old were you the last time this person stalked you?4N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Other_TimesPX181401290500Has anyone else stalked you?4N/A
PX181401_Other_SituationsPX181401300000Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Other_Situations_SpecifyPX181401300100Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror? SPECIFY4N/A
PX181401_Other_Situations_AgePX181401300200How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Other_Situations2PX181401300300Was there any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Natural_DisasterPX181401010000Have you ever been involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?4N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_AgePX181401010100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Serious_InjuryPX181401010200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Intense_FearPX181401010300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Other_TimePX181401010400Was there another time you were involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?4N/A
PX181401_Manmade_DisasterPX181401020000Have you ever been involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?4N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_AgePX181401020100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Serious_InjuryPX181401020200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Intense_FearPX181401020300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Other_TimePX181401020400Was there another time where you were involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?4N/A
PX181401_Combat_ExperiencePX181401030000Have you ever been involved in direct combat experience in a war? [NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]4N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_AgePX181401030100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Serious_InjuryPX181401030200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_FearPX181401030300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Other_TimePX181401030400Was there another time where you were involved in direct combat experience in a war? [NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]4N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZonePX181401040000Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For example, the Persian Gulf or Bosnia).4N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_AgePX181401040100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Serious_InjuryPX181401040200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Intense_FearPX181401040300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Other_TimePX181401040400Was there another time that you lived in a war zone?4N/A
PX181401_Serious_AccidentPX181401050000Have you ever had a serious accident at home, at work, or somewhere else?4N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident_AgePX181401050100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Serious_InjuryPX181401050200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Intense_FearPX181401050300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Other_TimePX181401050400Was there another time you had a serious accident at home, at work, or somewhere else?4N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_RadiationPX181401060000Have you ever been exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?4N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_AgePX181401060100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Serious_InjuryPX181401060200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Intense_FearPX181401060300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Other_TimePX181401060400Was there another time you were exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_HarmedPX181401070000Have you ever been shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Age_First_HappenedPX181401070100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Serious_InjuryPX181401070200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Intense_FearPX181401070300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_TimesPX181401070400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Age_Last_TimePX181401070500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Other_TimePX181401070600Has anyone else ever shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed you?4N/A
PX181401_ThreatenedPX181401080000Have you ever been threatened with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock or bottle?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Age_First_HappenedPX181401080100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Serious_InjuryPX181401080200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Intense_FearPX181401080300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_TimesPX181401080400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401080500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Other_TimesPX181401080600Has anyone else threatened you with any kind of weapon?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_ConfrontationPX181401090000Has anyone ever threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Age_First_HappenedPX181401090100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Serious_InjuryPX181401090200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Intense_FearPX181401090300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_TimesPX181401090400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401090500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Other_TimesPX181401090600Has anyone else threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_WeaponPX181401100000Have you ever been actually assaulted with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Age_First_HappenedPX181401100100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Serious_InjuryPX181401100200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Intense_FearPX181401100300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_TimesPX181401100400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401100500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Other_TimesPX181401100600Has anyone else actually assaulted you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12PX181401110000When you were a child--that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12--were you ever struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Age_FirstHappenedPX181401110100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Afraid_MightDiePX181401110200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Intense_FearPX181401110300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_TimesPX181401110400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Age_LastHappenedPX181401110500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Other_TimesPX181401110600During your childhood-were you struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed by anyone else?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12PX181401120000When you were a child- that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12-were you ever physically abused?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_First_HappenedPX181401120100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Serious_InjuryPX181401120200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Intense_FearPX181401120300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_TimesPX181401120400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_Last_HappenedPX181401120500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Other_TimesPX181401120600During your childhood--has anyone else physically abused you?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_ActivityPX181401130000Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Age_FirstHappenedPX181401130100How old were you the first time it happened?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_SeriousInjuryPX181401130200Were you in danger of death or serious injury?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_IntenseFearPX181401130300Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_TimesPX181401130400How many times did this person do this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Age_LastHappenedPX181401130500How old were you the last time this person did this to you?4N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Other_TimesPX181401130600Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_ActivityPX181401140000Other than what we just talked about, did anyone, male or female ever attempt to--but not actually-- force you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?4N/A