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Protocol - Social Isolation

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Protocol Name from Source:

UCLA Loneliness Scale

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The UCLA Loneliness Scale includes 20 questions used to assess how lonely the respondent feels. Each question begins with the statement "How often do you feel . . . ," followed by a positive or negative description of social interactions with others. The respondent is asked to indicate the frequency he/she feels that way (never, rarely, sometimes, always) for each question.

Protocol:

Instructions: The following statements describe how people sometimes feel. For each statement, please indicate how often you feel the way described by writing a number in the space provided. Here is an example:

How often do you feel happy?

If you never feel happy, you would respond "never"; if you always feel happy, you would respond "always".

NEVER         RARELY           SOMETIMES           ALWAYS
   1                    2                        3                       4

____ 1. How often do you feel that you are in tune with the people around you?

____ 2. How often do you feel that you lack companionship?

____ 3. How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to?

____ 4. How often do you feel alone?

____ 5. How often do you feel part of a group of friends?

____ 6. How often do you feel that you have a lot in common with the people around you?

____ 7. How often do you feel that you are no longer close to anyone?

____ 8. How often do you feel that your interests and ideas are not shared by those around you?

____ 9. How often do you feel outgoing and friendly?

____ 10. How often do you feel close to people?

____ 11. How often do you feel left out?

____ 12. How often do you feel that your relationships with others are not meaningful?

____ 13. How often do you feel that no one really knows you well?

____ 14. How often do you feel isolated from others?

____ 15. How often do you feel you can find companionship when you want it?

____ 16. How often do you feel that there are people who really understand you?

____ 17. How often do you feel shy?

____ 18. How often do you feel that people are around you but not with you?

____ 19. How often do you feel that there are people you can talk to?

____ 20. How often do you feel that there are people you can turn to?

Scoring:

Items 1, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 16, 19, and 20 should be reversed. Sum the total of all items. Higher scores indicate greater degrees of loneliness.

Copyright © 1994 by Daniel W. Russell

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Adult

Specific Instructions:

The Expert Review Panel notes that a Three-Item Loneliness Scale has been developed from the UCLA Loneliness Scale (see [link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.si.all|Supplemental Information]]).

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

December 13, 2010

Definition

This is a scale used to assess feelings of loneliness or social isolation.

Purpose

Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals who experience social isolation have shown signs of depression and potential links to cancer and impaired immune function. An increase in morbidity and mortality has been found in some studies. These outcomes can be independent of the size of a person’s social network or network connections.

Selection Rationale

The UCLA Loneliness Scale is the most commonly used instrument to assess loneliness. The scale is highly reliable (internal consistency of 0.89-0.94 and test-retest of 0.73). It has been used successfully in several countries with different cultures.

Language

English

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Person Social Isolation Assessment Score3163008CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)Social isolation proto62933-7LOINC

Process and Review

[link[phenx.org/node/103|Expert Review Panel 4]] (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· Revised descriptions of measure

Source

Russell, D. (1996). The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40.

General References

Doane, L. D., & Adam, E. K. (2010). Loneliness and cortisol: Momentary, day-to-day, and trait associations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 430-441.

Fox, C., Harper, A., Hyner, G., & Lyle, R. (1994). Loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life events in women who develop breast cancer. Journal of Community Health, 19, 467-482.

Pressman, S. D., Cohen, S., Miller, G. E., Barkin, A., Rabin, B. S., & Treanor, J. J. (2005). Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychology, 24, 297-306.

Seeman, T. E. (2000). Health promoting effects of friends and family on health outcomes in older adults. American Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 362-370.

Protocol ID:

181001

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX181001_In_Tune_With_PeoplePX181001010000How often do you feel that you are in tune with the people around you?4N/A
PX181001_Lack_CompanionshipPX181001020000How often do you feel that you lack companionship?4N/A
PX181001_No_One_Can_Turn_ToPX181001030000How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to?4N/A
PX181001_Feel_AlonePX181001040000How often do you feel alone?4N/A
PX181001_Part_Of_Group_Of_FriendsPX181001050000How often do you feel part of a group of friends?4N/A
PX181001_Lot_In_Common_With_PeoplePX181001060000How often do you feel that you have a lot in common with the people around you?4N/A
PX181001_No_Longer_Close_To_AnyonePX181001070000How often do you feel that you are no longer close to anyone?4N/A
PX181001_Interests_And_Ideas_Not_SharedPX181001080000How often do you feel that your interests and ideas are not shared by those around you?4N/A
PX181001_Outgoing_And_FriendlyPX181001090000How often do you feel outgoing and friendly?4N/A
PX181001_Close_To_PeoplePX181001100000How often do you feel close to people?4N/A
PX181001_Left_OutPX181001110000How often do you feel left out?4N/A
PX181001_Relationships_With_Others_Not_MeaningfulPX181001120000How often do you feel that your relationships with others are not meaningful?4N/A
PX181001_No_One_KnowsPX181001130000How often do you feel that no one really knows you well?4N/A
PX181001_Isolated_From_OthersPX181001140000How often do you feel isolated from others?4N/A
PX181001_Companionship_When_You_Want_ItPX181001150000How often do you feel you can find companionship when you want it?4N/A
PX181001_People_Who_Really_Understand_YouPX181001160000How often do you feel that there are people who really understand you?4N/A
PX181001_Feel_Shy?PX181001170000How often do you feel shy?4N/A
PX181001_People_Around_Not_With_YouPX181001180000How often do you feel that people are around you but not with you?4N/A
PX181001_People_You_Can_Talk_ToPX181001190000How often do you feel that there are people you can talk to?4N/A
PX181001_People_You_Can_Turn_ToPX181001200000How often do you feel that there are people you can turn to?4N/A