Protocol - Global Psychopathology Rating Scale - Research
Protocol Name from Source:
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia is a 30-item interviewer-administered questionnaire. The PANSS includes 7 positive symptoms (delusions, conceptual disorganization, hallucinations, hyperactivity, grandiosity, suspiciousness/persecution, and hostility), 7 negative symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, passive/apathetic social withdrawal, difficulty in abstract thinking, lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation, and stereotyped thinking) and 16 general psychopathology items (somatic concern, anxiety, guilt feelings, tension, mannerisms and posturing, depression, motor retardation, uncooperativeness, unusual thought content, disorientation, poor attention, lack of judgment and insight, disturbance of volition, poor impulse control, preoccupation, and active social avoidance). Each item is rated on a 7‑point scale (1 = absent, 2 = minimal, 3 = mild, 4 = moderate, 5 = moderate-severe, 6 = severe, 7 = extreme) that captures psychopathology in the past week. All items include full definitions and detailed anchoring criteria for all 7 rating points. The clinician-administered interview takes, on average, 45 minutes.
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia is a proprietary instrument, and administration requires a license from Multi-Health Systems (MHS) Inc.:
P.O. Box 950
North Tonawanda, NY 14120-0950
Personnel and Training Required
The following instructions are included in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia technical brochure, available from the Multi-Health Systems (MHS) Inc. website:
The PANSS scale should be administered and scored by trained mental health professionals. Individuals who are not trained in psychiatric interviewing techniques or who do not have extensive experience working with schizophrenic populations cannot accurately use the PANSS. Potential users of the instrument should be familiar with the standards for psychological and educational testing developed by the American Psychological Association (APA), the American Educational Research Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education and with the practice standards of the APA. Qualified test users should also be members of professional associations that endorse a set of standards for the ethical use of psychological or educational tests or licensed professionals in the areas of psychiatry, psychology, medicine, social work, nursing, or an allied field.
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||Yes|
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
Mode of Administration
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia is a proprietary instrument and administration requires a license from Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
The External Review Panel notes that users may also want to assess psychosis using the [link[www.phenxtoolkit.org/toolkit_content/supplemental_info/suicide/measures/Psychosis.doc|Prodromal Questionnaire-16 (PQ-16)]] in the Suicide Specialty Collection.
In comparison to the [link[phenxtoolkitdev.rti.org/index.php?pageLink=browse.protocoldetails&id=122102|Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)]], the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) may be more relevant for use in research settings to provide more detailed assessment of the negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, schizophrenia, and related disorders. The BPRS may be useful when assessment of general symptoms is all that is needed and when a high level of precision regarding positive and negative symptoms is unnecessary.
November 28, 2017
A clinician-administered rating scale for assessing symptoms of psychotic disorders.
This clinician-administered interview assesses the severity of major psychiatric symptoms. This measure includes two protocols, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Both measures include ratings of general psychopathology and can be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions in populations with moderate-to-severe psychotic disorders. The PANSS includes all of the BPRS items and additional items that provide a more detailed assessment of the severity of the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders. Thus, the PANSS is particularly useful in assessing the effectiveness of interventions for positive and negative symptoms in this patient group.
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia was compared to similar instruments and selected because it is a validated, reliable, and well-established measure of schizophrenia symptoms. Additionally, the Expert Review Panel (ERP) notes that assessment of schizophrenia should be done by a clinician because self-report measures can produce false positives.
Process and Review
[link[phenx.org/node/103/|Expert Review Panel 4]] (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.
Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:
- Changed measure name
- Replaced protocol
- Created new data dictionary
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia is a proprietary instrument and administration requires a license from Multi-Health Systems (MHS) Inc.:
P.O. Box 950
North Tonawanda, NY 14120-0950
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Daneluzzo, E., Arduini, L., Rinaldi, O., Di Domenico, M., Petruzzi, C., Kalyvoka, A., & Rossi, A. (2002). PANSS factors and scores in schizophrenic and bipolar disorders during an index acute episode. Schizophrenia Research, 56, 129-136.
Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261-276.
von Knorring, L., & Lindstrom, E. (1995). Principal components and further possibilities with the PANSS. Acta Psychiatria Scandinavia Supplement, 388, 5-10.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||Version||dbGaP Mapping|