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Protocol - Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders - Child

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Protocol Name from Source:

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST)

Availability:

Publicly available

Description:

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST), also known as the Social and Communication Development Questionnaire, is a 37-question, parent-report instrument. It is based on a variety of behavioral descriptions of the core features of the autism spectrum (social impairments, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors) from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV).

Protocol:

Please read the following questions carefully, and indicate the appropriate answer.

1. Does s/he join in playing games with other children easily?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

2. Does s/he come up to you spontaneously for a chat?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

3. Was s/he speaking by 2 years old?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

4. Does s/he enjoy sports?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

5. Is it important to him/her to fit in with the peer group?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

6. Does s/he appear to notice unusual details that others miss?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

7. Does s/he tend to take things literally?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

8. When s/he was 3 years old, did s/he spend a lot of time pretending (e.g., play-acting being a superhero, or holding teddy’s tea parties)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

9. Does s/he like to do things over and over again, in the same way all the time?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

10. Does s/he find it easy to interact with other children?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

11. Can s/he keep a two-way conversation going?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

12. Can s/he read appropriately for his/her age?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

13. Does s/he mostly have the same interests as his/her peers?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

14. Does s/he have an interest which takes up so much time that s/he does little else?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

15. Does s/he have friends, rather than just acquaintances?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

16. Does s/he often bring you things s/he is interested in to show you?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

17. Does s/he enjoy joking around?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

18. Does s/he have difficulty understanding the rules for polite behavior?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

19. Does s/he appear to have an unusual memory for details?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

20. Is his/her voice unusual (e.g., overly adult, flat, or very monotonous)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

21. Are people important to him/her?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

22. Can s/he dress him/herself?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

23. Is s/he good at turn-taking in conversation?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

24. Does s/he play imaginatively with other children, and engage in role-play?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

25. Does s/he often do or say things that are tactless or socially inappropriate?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

26. Can s/he count to 50 without leaving out any numbers?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

27. Does s/he make normal eye-contact?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

28. Does s/he have any unusual and repetitive movements?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

29. Is his/her social behavior very one-sided and always on his/her own terms?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

30. Does s/he sometimes say "you" or "s/he" when s/he means "I"?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

31. Does s/he prefer imaginative activities such as play-acting or story-telling, rather than numbers or lists of facts?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

32. Does s/he sometimes lose the listener because of not explaining what s/he is talking about?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

33. Can s/he ride a bicycle (even if with stabilizers)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

34. Does s/he try to impose routines on himself/herself, or on others, in such a way that it causes problems?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

35. Does s/he care how s/he is perceived by the rest of the group?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

36. Does s/he often turn conversations to his/her favorite subject rather than following what the other person wants to talk about?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

37. Does s/he have odd or unusual phrases?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

SPECIAL NEEDS SECTION

Please complete as appropriate

38. Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

If Yes, please specify..................................................................................................

39. Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?

Language delay

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD)

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Hearing or visual difficulties

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Autism Spectrum Condition, including Asperger’s Syndrome

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

A physical disability

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Other (please specify)…………………………………………..

Scoring Instructions

Score "1" if the respondent answers "No" to questions 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 23, 24, 27, 31, and 35. Score "1" if the respondent answers "Yes" to questions 6, 7, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 36, and 37. Sum all "1’s" to get a total score. Maximum score possible is 31, cut-off currently is 15 for possible ASD or related social-communication difficulties. Questions that are not scored are controls.

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements

Requirement CategoryRequired
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individualNo
Major equipmentNo
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collectionNo
Specialized trainingNo

Mode of Administration

Self-administered

Life Stage:

Child

Specific Instructions:

None

Research Domain Information

Release Date:

May 12, 2010

Definition

A questionnaire to assess autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of developmental problems that includes autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and the category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. ASD is characterized by a lack of social interaction, difficulties in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior (APA, 2000).

Purpose

This measure is used to screen an individual for the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is estimated that between 1 in 80 and 1 in 240 children, with an average of 1 in 110 children, in the United States have an ASD (CDC, 2009). Autism displays a familial pattern because first-order relatives of those with ASD are at greater risk for autism and other developmental problems than the general population (APA, 2000).

Selection Rationale

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) was selected because it is a relatively low-burden, parent-reported protocol that covers the various domains of the spectrum and has been used in a large twin study in the United Kingdom.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Greek, Latvian, Norwegian, Persian, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish

Standards

StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE)Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Assessment Score3075511CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)Autism disorders child proto62740-6LOINC

Process and Review

[link[phenx.org/node/103|Expert Review Panel 4]] (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

  • Revised description of measure

Source

Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of UK screen for mainstream primary-school children. Autism, 6(1), 9-31.

General References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC), Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2006 Principal Investigators. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 58(10), 1-20.

O’Nions, E., Tick, B., Rijsdijk, F., Happé, F., Plomin, R., Ronald, A., & Viding, E. (2015). Examining the genetic and environmental associations between autistic social and communication deficits and psychopathic callous-unemotional traits. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0134331.

Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of UK screen for mainstream primary-school children. Autism, 6(1), 9-31.

Taylor, M. J., Robinson, E. B., Happé, F., Bolton, P., Freeman, D., & Ronald, A. (2015). A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence. Molecular Autism, 6, 44.

Williams, J., Scott, F., Stott, C., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron-Cohen, S. & Brayne, C. (2005). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. Autism, 9(1), 45-68.

Protocol ID:

120903

Variables:

Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX120903_Join_GamesPX120903010000Does s/he join in playing games with other children easily?4N/A
PX120903_Chat_SpontaneouslyPX120903020000Does s/he come up to you spontaneously for a chat?4N/A
PX120903_Speaking_By_TwoPX120903030000Was s/he speaking by 2 years old?4N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_SportsPX120903040000Does s/he enjoy sports?4N/A
PX120903_Important_To_Fit_InPX120903050000Is it important to him/her to fit in with the peer group?4N/A
PX120903_Notice_DetailsPX120903060000Does s/he appear to notice unusual details that others miss?4N/A
PX120903_Take_Things_LiterallyPX120903070000Does s/he tend to take things literally?4N/A
PX120903_Pretending_At_Age_ThreePX120903080000When s/he was 3 years old, did s/he spend a lot of time pretending (e.g., play-acting being a superhero, or holding teddy's tea parties)?4N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_RepetitionPX120903090000Does s/he like to do things over and over again, in the same way all the time?4N/A
PX120903_Easy_Interact_Other_ChildrenPX120903100000Does s/he find it easy to interact with other children?4N/A
PX120903_Keep_Conversation_GoingPX120903110000Can s/he keep a two-way conversation going?4N/A
PX120903_Reads_At_Age_LevelPX120903120000Can s/he read appropriately for his/her age?4N/A
PX120903_Same_Interests_As_PeersPX120903130000Does s/he mostly have the same interests as his/her peers?4N/A
PX120903_Dominating_InterestPX120903140000Does s/he have an interest which takes up so much time that s/he does little else?4N/A
PX120903_Friends_Or_AcquaintancesPX120903150000Does s/he have friends, rather than just acquaintances?4N/A
PX120903_Share_ThingsPX120903160000Does s/he often bring you things s/he is interested in to show you?4N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_Joking_AroundPX120903170000Does s/he enjoy joking around?4N/A
PX120903_Difficulty_With_Polite_BehaviorPX120903180000Does s/he have difficulty understanding the rules for polite behavior?4N/A
PX120903_Unusual_Memory_For_DetailsPX120903190000Does s/he appear to have an unusual memory for details?4N/A
PX120903_Unusual_VoicePX120903200000Is his/her voice unusual (e.g., overly adult, flat, or very monotonous)?4N/A
PX120903_People_Are_ImportantPX120903210000Are people important to him/her?4N/A
PX120903_Get_DressedPX120903220000Can s/he dress him/herself?4N/A
PX120903_Conversation_Turn_TakingPX120903230000Is s/he good at turn-taking in conversation?4N/A
PX120903_Engage_In_Role_PlayPX120903240000Does s/he play imaginatively with other children, and engage in role-play?4N/A
PX120903_Socially_Inappropriate_BehaviorPX120903250000Does s/he often do or say things that are tactless or socially inappropriate?4N/A
PX120903_Count_To_FiftyPX120903260000Can s/he count to 50 without leaving out any numbers?4N/A
PX120903_Make_Eye_ContactPX120903270000Does s/he make normal eye-contact?4N/A
PX120903_Repetitive_MovementsPX120903280000Does s/he have any unusual and repetitive movements?4N/A
PX120903_One_Sided_Social_BehaviorPX120903290000Is his/her social behavior very one-sided and always on his/her own terms?4N/A
PX120903_You_Or_IPX120903300000Does s/he sometimes say "you" or "s/he" when s/he means "I"?4N/A
PX120903_Imagination_Or_FactsPX120903310000Does s/he prefer imaginative activities such as play-acting or story-telling, rather than numbers or lists of facts?4N/A
PX120903_Does_Not_Explain_TopicPX120903320000Does s/he sometimes lose the listener because of not explaining what s/he is talking about?4N/A
PX120903_Ride_BicyclePX120903330000Can s/he ride a bicycle (even if with stabilizers)?4N/A
PX120903_Self_Imposed_RoutinesPX120903340000Does s/he try to impose routines on himself/herself, or on others, in such a way that it causes problems?4N/A
PX120903_Care_How_PerceivedPX120903350000Does s/he care how s/he is perceived by the rest of the group?4N/A
PX120903_Redirects_ConversationPX120903360000Does s/he often turn conversations to his/her favorite subject rather than following what the other person wants to talk about?4N/A
PX120903_Unusual_PhrasesPX120903370000Does s/he have odd or unusual phrases?4N/A
PX120903_Teacher_ConcernsPX120903380000Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development?4N/A
PX120903_Teacher_Concerns_SpecifyPX120903380100Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development? If yes, please specify4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Language_DelayPX120903390100Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Language delay4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_ADHDPX120903390200Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Visual_Hearing_DifficultiesPX120903390300Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Hearing or visual difficulties4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Autism_SpectrumPX120903390400Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Autism Spectrum Condition, including Asperger's Syndrome4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Physical_DisabilityPX120903390500Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: A physical disability4N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_OtherPX120903390600Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Other (please specify)4N/A